Forced Labor Camps
Selected Bibliography

Edited by Katalin Dobo - May 2, 1999 - latest version is available at
www.osa.ceu.hu/gulag

In Czech and Slovak | In English | In Finnish | In French | In German | In Hebrew and Jiddish | In Hungarian | In Latvian | In Lithuanian | In Norwegian | In Polish | In Russian | In Spanish | In Swedish | In Ukrainian

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In Czech and Slovak

Memories

1959

Frantisek Polak, Cestou ze sovetskeho koncentraku. New York, 1959

1986

Karel Goliath-Gorovsky, Zapisky ze stalinskych koncentraku: vyber ze vzpominek a studii. Koln: Index, 1986

Czechoslovak political prisoners in Soviet camps.

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In English

Studies

1935

The White Sea canal; being an account of the construction of the new canal between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea. / Ed. by M. Gorky, L. Auerbach, S. G. Firin. London: John Lane, 1935

1948

David J. Dallin; Boris I. Nicolaevsky. Forced labour in Soviet Russia. London: Hollis & Carter, 1948

Forced labour camps in White Sea and Kolyma areas.

1949

David J. Dallin.The economics of slave labor. Chicago: H. Regnery Co., 1949

Slave labor in Russia; the case presented by the American Federation of Labor to the United Nations. / American Federation of Labor. Washington, 1949

The same year published in German.

1953

News From Behind the Iron Curtain is published monthly by the Research and Publication Service, National Committee for a Free Europe, Inc., New York

1955

Forced Labor Camps in the "Peopleís Democracies". Editor Richard K. Carlton. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, 1955

Research and analysis by Andrew G.Caranfil, Jan Hajdukewitcz, Jaromir Ledecky, Fred S. Pisky, L.A.D. Dellin, Dragos D. Kostich; Legal material supplied by the Mid-European Law Project of the Library of Congress. Based on the Statement on Forced Labor by the International League for the Rights of Man to Secretary General of the United Nations under Economic and Social Council resolution 524 (XVII) of April 27, 1954, New York, March 28, 1955

1956

500 Ukrainian marytred women. / ed. by Stephania Halychyn. New York: United Ukrainian Womenís Organizations of America, 1956

1962

Volodymyr Kosyk, Concentration camps in the USSR. London: Ukrainian Publishers, 1962

Published in German by Ukrainische Freie Universita t, Munchen, in 1981

1963

Raphael Rupert, A hidden world. Cleveland: World Pub. Co., 1963

1967

James Bunyan. The origin of forced labor in the Soviet state 1917-1821: Documents and materials. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1967

Describes theory and practice of labour militarisation.

1968

Martha Chyz, Woman and child in the modern system of slavery - U. S. S. R. Translated from the Ukrainian by Olha Prychodko. Toronto:SUZERO; New York: DOBRUS, 1962

Robert Conquest.The great terror: Stalinís purge of the thirties. London: Macmillan, 1968

Examines background to Stalinís reign of terror with particular reference to Kirov murder and purges of Old Bolsheviks. Includes chapter on labour camps.

1973

For this was I born: the human conditions in USSR slave labor camps: photographs, testimonies, petitions, letters and other documents. / compiled and edited by Yuri R. Shymko. Toronto, Canada: UCRAINCA Research Institute, 1973

Peter Reddaway, The forced labour camps in the U. S. S. R. today; an unrecognized example of modern inhumanity. Bruxelles: International Committee for the Defence of Human Rights in the U. S. S. R., [ 1973?]

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. U. S. S. R. labor camps. Hearings, Ninety-third Congress, first session. Washington U. S. Government Printing Office, 1973

Hearings held February 1-2, 1973.

1977

Letters from Russian prisons: consisting of reprints of documents be political prisoners in Soviet prisons, prison camps, and exile, and reprints of affidavits concerning political persecution in Soviet Russia, official statements by Soviet authorities, excerpts from Soviet laws pertaining to civil liber ties, and other documents: with introductory letters by twenty-two well/known European and American authors / International Committee for Political Prisoners; edited by Alexander Berkman. Westport, Conn.: Hyperion Press, 1977

Reprint of the 1925 edition published by Boni, New York.

1978

Robert Conquest. Kolyma: the Arctic death camps. London: Macmillan, 1978

Based mainly on experiences of ex-prisoners in North-Eastern Siberia.

1980

Avraam Shifrin, The first guidebook to prisons and concentration camps of the Soviet Union. Uhldingen, Switzerland: Stephanus Edition, 1980

Translation of Putevoditelí po lageriam, tiurímam i psikhiatricheskim tiurímam v SSSR.

Libushe Zorin, Soviet prisons and concentration camps: an annotated bibliography, 1917-1980. Newtonville, Mass.: Oriental Research Partners, 1980

1984

Wladyslaw John Cieslewicz. History of Russian gold mining through 1965. Golden, Colorado, 1984

With emphasis on forced labour camps at Kolyma. Reproduced from typescript.

1993

Michael Jakobson, Origins of the gulag: the Soviet prison camp system, 1917-1934. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1993

1994

Edwin Bacon, The Gulag at war: Stalinís forced labour system in the light of the archives. New York: New York University Press, 1994

1995

Elena Bondarenko. Exploitation of Japanese POW labour in the USSR. In: Far Eatern Affairs, 1995. No. 1. pp. 72-85

Outlines events leading to capture of large numbers of Japanese soldiers in 1945-1946 by Soviet troops. Contrary to Potsdam Declaration they were sent as forced labour workers to Russian Far East. Describes type of work they carried out, their pay and living conditions.

1996

L. L. Kerber, Stalinís aviation gulag: a memoir of Andrei Tupolev and the purge era. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996

Andrei Nikolaevich Tupolev, 1888-1972

1997

Revaluatins from the Russian Archives. Documents in English Translation edited by Diane P. Koenker and Ronald D. Bachman. Washington: Library of Congress, 1997

1999

Dariusz Tolczyk, See no evil: literary cover-ups and discoveries of the Soviet camp experience. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999
Labor camps in the Russian literature.

2003

Anne Applebaum, Gulag: A History. 720 pages, Doubleday; 1st edition April 15, 2003
ISBN: 0767900561

Memoires

1957

Josef Martin Bauer. As far as my feet will carry me. / Translated from the German by Lawrence Wilson. London: Andre Deutsch, 1957

Escape of German prisoner of war from forced labour camp on Bering Strait across Siberia to Iran, 1949-1952.

1971

Andrei Amalrik. Involuntary journey to Siberia. Newton Abbot: Readers Union, 1971

Abridged translation of Nezhelannoe puteshestvie v Sibirí. Author was exiled to Siberia. Describes his life there and reports on collective farms. Most of his time was spent in Tomsk, Novosibirsk and Krivosheino.

1976

Edward Buca.Vorkuta. London: Constable, 1976

Account of autorís experiences in Vorkuta labour camp complex in Soviet Arctic, 1945-1953, and later in other camps in Siberia.

1994

Georg Schinke, Red cage: documentary. Lawrenceville, Va: Brunswick, 1994

A German prisoner of war in the Soviet labor camps.

1996

Isaac J. Vogelfanger, Red tempest: the life of a surgeon in the Gulag. Montreal; Buffalo: McGill-Queenís University Press, 1996

1997

Felix Gryff, Red hell. Sydney, Australia: F. Gryff, 1997

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In Finnish

Memoires

1974

Boris Berin-Bey, Venajan punainen lihamylly. Turku: Foreningen Veronica, 1974

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In French

Studies

1951

Les conditions de la liberte en U. S. S. S.; le role de la decision administrative dans la procedure sovietique. / International Commission against Concentration Camp Practices. Paris: Editions du Pavois, 1951

English translation published in 1953 in Boston by Beacon Press.

Livre blanc sur les camps de concentration sovietiques. / International Commission against Concentration Camp Practices. Paris: La Pavois, 1951

Documents of a public session held in Bruxelles from 21 until 26 May, 1951.

Le proces des camps de concentration Sovietiques. Paris: D. Wapler, 1951

Based on action for libel by David Rousset against Claude Morgan, Pierre Daix and the Lettres Francaises.

1959

Paul Barton (pseud.), Líinstitution concentrationnaire en Russie (1930-1957) par Paul Barton que precede le sens de notre combat, par David Rousset. Paris: Plon, 1959

Analyses administrative system of Soviet concentration camps, its economic and social roles, its forced labour system. Publication was made under auspices of International Commission against Concentration Camp Practices. Appendices include documents relating to rules and regulations of Ukhta-Pechora camp.

1960

Les camps de concentration en U. R. S. S.: pourquoi et pour qui existentils? / Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations. Taipei: Mission du Bloc antibolchevique des nations, 1960

1974

Mikhail Geller, Le monde concentrationnaire et la litterature sovietique. Lausanne: Editions LíAge díhomme, 1974

1975

Andre Glucksmann, La cuisiniere et le mangeur fíhommes: essai sur les rapports entre líEtat, le marxisme et les camps de concentration. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1975

1984

Pierre Rigoulot, Des Francais au goulag: 1917-1984. Paris: Fayard, 1984

1991

Pierre Rigoulot, Les paupieres lourdes: les Francais face au Gulag: aveuglements et indignations. Paris: Editions universitaires, 1991

Memoires

1982

Ivan Lukíianovich Solonevich, Barbeles rouges (Rossia v kontzlagere) Trois Russes síevadent des bagnes sovietiques; adapte du russe par Pierre Bregy et P.-A. Cousteau. Paris: Les Editions de France, 1938

Published in German by Verlag fur Ganzheitliche Forschung and Kultur, Wobbenbull, in 1982-85.

Published in English by Vaulin, Washigton, in 1958 (5th ed.)

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In German

Studies

1949

Sklavenarbeit in Russland; der Amerikanische Gewerkschaftbund (American Federation of Labor) legt den Vereinten Nationen das Ergebnis seiner Ermittlungen zu dieser Frage for. / American Federation of Labor. n. p., 1949

The same year published in English in Washington.

1958

Aurel von Juchen, Was die Hunde heulen; die sowjetische Wirklichkeit von unten betrachtet. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1958

1960

Gerhard Finn, Die politischen Haftlinge der Sowjetzone, 1945-1959. Pfaffenhofen: Ilmgauverlag, 1960

1965

Zur Geschichte der deutschen Kriegsgefangenen des zweiten Weltkrieges. 15 vols. Munich: Verlag Ernst & Wener Gieseking Bielefeld, 1965-1967

With unique materials from former German POWs in the Soviet Union in the 1940s and 1950s.

1979

Rolf Hinze, Plenni dawai: Nachkriegsdrama hinter Stacheldraht: ein Dokumentarbericht. 3. uberarbeitete Aufl. Preuss. Oldendorf: Schutz, 1979

1994

Meinhard Stark, Deutsche Frauen des GULag: eine lebens- und zeitgeschichtliche Befragung. Berlin, 1994

Doctoral thesis at Humboldt-Universita t zu Berlin, 1994. Interviews with women political prisoners.

1996

Freya Klier, Verschleppt ans Ende der Welt: Schicksale deutscher Frauen in sowjetischen Arbeitslagern. Berlin: Ullstein, 1996

Ralf Stettner, Archipel GULag: Stalins Zwangslager- Terrorinstrument und Wirtschaftsgigant: Entstehung, Organisation und Funktion des sowjetischen Lagersystems 1928-1956. Paderborn: Schoningh, 1996

Memoires

1936

Alexandra Anzerowa. Aus dem Lande der Stummen. Breslau: Bergstadtverlag, 1936

1962

Maximilien de Santerre, Ihr name ist Legion; zwolf Jahre unter Berufsverbrechern in der Sowjetunion. Munchen: J. Pfeiffer, 1962

1988

Viktor Sturmer, Zh. 895: im Straflager zwischen Eismer und Baikalsee. Berlin: Westkreuz-Verlag, 1988

1997

Kathe Fraedrich, Im Gulag der Frauen. Munchen: Universitas, 1997

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In Hebrew and Jiddish

Memoires

1959

Zalman Kaplan, Hinter di kratn in Ratnfarband. Tel Aviv, Farlag "Lebns-Fragn", 1959

S. S. Ron, Me-Ďever mi-sham: pirke teíur ve-hagut shel asir mi-mahaneh-hesger me-Ďever le-masakh ha-barzel. Jerusalem: Mosad Byalik, 1959

S. Shabath, Be-mahanot ha-tsafon: korotav shel asir Tsiyon me-ahore Masakh ha-barzel. Jerusalem: R. Mas, 1959

"In the camps of the north; the happenings of a prisoner in the Sowiet far north camps."

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In Hungarian

Studies

Memoires

1989

Kemenyfi Bela. Magyar leventek a sarkkoron tulE Az AR87-es emlekeibol. BudapestE Magveto, 1989

Lovas Marton, Magyar voltam a Gulag-on. Budapest: Szechenyi, 1989

1995

Bordi Imre, A Gulag rabja voltam. Szekesfehervar: Tortenelembaratok Kore Alapitvany Szabadmuvelodes Haza, 1995

1997

Veress Jozsef, Rabszolgak voltunkÖ egy Elhurcolas-sal vegzodo Hadifogsag tortenete az elo naptol az utolsoig. Mateszalka: Veress Jozsef, 1997

1998

Bien Gyorgy Zoltan, Elveszett evek: egy magyar diak raboskodasa a Gulag kelet-sziberiai lagereiben; Kolima 1945-1955. Budapest: Gondos, 1998

1999

Rů zsŠ s JŠ nos. Keseru Ifjķ sŠ g. … lteto Remť nysť g. Szovjet FogsŠ gom Naplů ja. Bitter Youth. Life Giving Hope. Third edition. Budapest: PŁ ski, 1999

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In Latvian

Studies

1974

Ervins Kurzemnieks, Divdesmita gadsimta verdziba PSRS. Grand Haven, Mich.: Raven Printing, 1974

Deportations and political prisoners from Latvia.

1990

Janis Barkans, O. C.-78: soda nometnu un cietumu gusta: dokumentacija. Stokholma: Latviesu nacionalais fonds, 1990

Via Dolorosa: Stalinisma upuru liecibas. 4 v. Riga: "Liesma", 1990-1995

Memoires

Helena Latkovska Wojtuszkiewicz, I lived through hell on earth: sixteen years in Siberia. TRANSLATED FROM LATVIAN! Baltimore, MD: Gateway Press, 1998

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In Lithuanian

Studies

1963

Kipras Bielinis, Teroro ir vergijos imperija Sovietu Rusija. New Yorkas: Isleista Amerikos Lietuvio Socialdemokratu Sajungos Literaturos Fondo lesomis, 1963

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In Norwegian

1993

Vladimir Nikolaevich Bulatov.Stalins politikk i Arktis. In: Ottar, 1993, 197, No. 4. pp. 23-29

The building of North-East Passage: ten of thousands killed by exhaustion, cold or disease in labour and punishment camps.

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In Polish

Studies

1945

Sylwester Mora (pseud. of Kazimierz Zamorski), Piotr Zwierniak. Sprawiedliwosc sowiecka. Wlochy: s. n., 1945

1992

Obozy koncentracyjne OGPU w ZSRR / red. Bernadetta Gronek, Grzegorz Jakubowski, Irena Marczak. Warszawa: Wyd. Bellona, 1992

1993

Polacy w Rosji mowia a sobie. / wybor i wstep Edward Walewander. Lublin: Red. Wydawnictw Katolickiego Uniwesytetu Lubelskiego, 1993

Biographies of Polish political prisoners.

1995

Izabella Sariusz-Skarpska, Polscy swiadkowie Gulagu: literatura lagrowa 1939-1989. Krakow: Universitas, 1995

Soviet labor camps in Polish literature.

Memoires

1952

Gustaw Herling-Grudzinski, Inny swiat: zapiski sowieckie. London: William Heinemann, 1952

Published in English in 1951 in London; in Russian in 1989 by Overseas Publications Interchange, London. Translated into German, Italian, Spanish, Swedish, Japanese, Chinese and Arab.

1985

Wiktoria Krasniewska, Po wyzwoleniu - 1944-1956. Paryz: Instytut Literacki, 1985

1992

Stanislaw Dakiniewicz, Wiezien P 303: wspomnienia lagiernika, 1944-1955. Wroclaw: Polskie Tow. Ludoznawcze, 1992

1994

Walenty Woronowicz, Przypadki XX wieku: 20 lat na Wyspach Solowieckich i Kolymie, 1935-1955. Warszawa: Instytut Historii PAN, Warszawska Oficyna Wydawnicza "Gryf", 1994

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In Russian

Studies

Sistema-ispravitel'no trudovykh lagerei v SSSR. 1923-1960. Spravochnik. Moskva: Zven'ia, 1998

1956

Viacheslav P. Artemíev, Rezhim i okhrana ispravitelíno-trudovykh lagerei. Munich: Institut po izucheniiu SSSR, 1956

Artemíev was a deputy chief of corrective labor camps in Kazakhstan during the 1930s. Survey of labor camps from the mid-1930s to the 1950s.

1979

Vladimir Markman, Na kraiu geografii. Moskva-Ierusalim, 1979

Psychological aspects of the life in prison and labor camps.

1987

Jacques Rossi. Spravochnik po Gulagu: istoricheskii slovarí sovetskikh penitentsiarnykh institutsii i terminov, sziazannykh s prinuditelínym trudom. London: Overseas Publications Interchange, 1987

Encyclopedia dictionary of Soviet penitentiary institutions and terms related to the forced labor camp.

1991

V. M. Khlypalov.Kadry energetikov Severo-Vostoka SSSR v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny (1941-1945 gg). In Kraevedcheskie Zapiski. 1991, No. 17.pp. 26-33

Gives figures comparing number of labour camp and non-camp workers, and shows importance of former camp inmates in power industry.

1993

N. F. Bugai. Konets 30-kh - 40-e gody: Evropeiskii Sever: deportatsiia narodov. In: Trudy (Institut IAzika, Literatury i Istorii.) 1993, Vol. 52. pp. 84-97

Using archival sources mainly from the archives of GULAG NKVD presents statistical information on deportation to nearly all regions of Russian European North and examines methods used by repressive organs.

1994

L. P. Rasskazov, Karatelínye organy v protsesse formirovaniia i funktsionirovaniia administrativno-komandnoi sistemy v Sovetskom gosudarstve, 1917-1941 gg. Ufa: Akademiia MVD, Ufimskaia vysshaia shkola, 1994

1995

Teatr GULAGa: vospominaiia, ocherki. Sost. M. M. Korallov. Moskva: Memorial, 1995

1998

G. Ioffe; A. Nesterenko.Volchii kamení: Uranovye ostrova arkhipelaga GULAGa. Sankt-Peterburg: Peterburg-XXI vek, 1998

Memoires

1934

Belomorsko-Baltiiskii Canal. The tale of its construction, 1931-1934. M. Gorkii, L. Aberbakh, S. Firin. A reprint from the 1934 edition, Moskva, 1998.

1957

Jurij A. Treguboff, Vosemí let vo vlasti Lubianki: zapiski chlena NTS. Frankfurt am Main: Posev, 1957

1974

Aleksandr Solzhenitsin. Archipelag GULag. 1918-1956, Opyt xudozhestvennogo issledovaniia.Gulag Archipelago. Paris:YMCA-Press, 1974

1989

Ivan P. Aleksakhin. Kolymskie etapy. In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1989. No. 16. pp. 108-117

Account by party worker arrested in 1937 of building labour camp 700 km north west of Magadan. Detailed description of living and working conditions of prisoners in goldmines between 1938 and 1942.

Nikolai B. Chekarev.Teatr v gody voiny. In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1989. No. 16. pp. 132-142

Memoirs of actor sentenced in 1937 of wartime theatre in Magadan.

Bella E. Gekhtman. Eduard Petrovich Berzin. In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1989. No. 16. pp. 71-79

Reminiscences of meeting in 1930 with Berzin, prior to his appointment as head of Dalístroiís gold mines and labour camps in Kolyma.

Leonid G. Kilídishev. Vremia trevog i ozhidanii. Kraevedcheskie Zapiski. 1989. No. 16. pp. 95-107

Reminiscences of 14 years old who joined father working for Dalístroi in Magadan in 1936.

1990

N. I. Gagen-Torn. V ssylke na Enisee. In: Sovetskaia Etnografiia, 1990. No. 3. pp. 97-113

Extract from diary of distinguished Soviet etnographer who passed through Kolyma camps (arrested in 1936, finally released and rehabilitated in 1956).

1991

Evfrosiniia Kersnovskaia, Naskalínaia zhivopisí. Moskva: "Kvadrat", 1991

Diaries and pictures.

1992

Aleksandra S. Bertsinskaia. "Neotoshedshie trotskisty". In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1992. No. 18. pp. 32-41

Memoirs of old Bolsheviks, arrested in 1928, 1936 and 1948, and sentenced to hard labour in Kolyma gold mines and collective farms.

A. F. Gudimenko. Za reisom reis. In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1992. No. 18. pp. 15-22

Memoirs of truck driver, describing forced labour camps in Kolyma from 1933-1935, and after release working as stakhanovite for Magadan motor-transport depot from 1935-1945.

Sergei P. De-Martino. Ispovedí s rsshitym rtom. In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1992. No. 18. pp. 93-101

Memoirs of a man sentenced to death at age 20, then reprieved to 10 years hard labour. Describes arrival in Magadan camp in 1947 and conflict with guards leading to solitary confinement.

N. G. Dudka. Avtobaza Tatura. In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1992. No. 18. pp. 53-58

Memoirs of schoolteacher sentenced in 1938, describing work conditions in mines and at depot in Kolyma.

Krasnyi slon na Belom more. / Ed, byIU. Brodskii. In: Severnye Prostory, 1992. No. 5-6. pp. 23-27

Eyewitness accounts of life in prisons on Solovetskie Ostrova, in 1930s.

Piatí let na Kolyme. . In: Kraevedcheskie Zapiski, 1992. No. 18. pp. 23-31

Memoirs of civil engineer working in Kolyma from 1934-1939. Describes construction of first roads and towns. Includes encounters with labour camps and prisoners before and after his own arrest in 1938.

1993

Dmitrii Sergeevich Likhachev, Statíi rannikh let. Tverí: Tverskoe oblastnoe otdelenie Rossiiskogo fonda kulítury, 1993

1994

Petr Alekhin. Golubaia osí. In: Severnye Prostory, 1994, No. 1. pp. 48-53

Reminiscences of captain of Enisei riverboat about 60 years on the river. Includes comments on transport of prisoners from 1940s onwards, growth and decline of settlements and exploitation of resources, river transport.

IUrii Dombrovskii. Do smerti byl odin progon. In: Svernye Prostory, 1994, No. 2. pp. 44-45

Verses and letters written and sent from Vorkuta.

1998

Anatolii IAmpolískii, GULAG 80-kh: rasskazy a perezhitom. Ivanovo: Izdatelístvo "Ivanovo", 1998

Fiction

1997

IU. L. Fidelígolíts, Kolyma: fragment povesti "Venets iz koliuchei provoloki". Moskva: "Zveníia", 1997

Vladimir Karpenko, Amba. Poltava: Izdatelístvo "Poltava", 1997

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In Spanish

Studies

1954

Kazimieras Cibiras, El imperio del genocidio; las deportaciones y la escavitud en el mundo sovietico. Medellin, Columbia: Impresos Internacionales, 1954

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In Swedish

Memoirs

1949

Antoni Ekart. Direkt fran Ryssland; sanningen om de "sparlost forsvunna". Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Forlag, 1949

Authorís experienses in Soviet prisons and camps during WWII. Translated from original Polish manuscript.

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In Ukrainian

Studies

1981

Ukrainsíki politvíiazni v SRSR: adresnyi pokazhchyk: za stanom na hrudení 1981 roku / uporiadkuvala Marta Harasovsíka. Toronto; Baltymor: Ukr. vyd-vo "Smoloskyp" im. V. Symonenka, 1981

Memoires

Oksana Meshko, Mizh smertiu i zhyttiam. Kyiv: NVP "IAVA", 1991

Fiction

Ivan Bahrianyi, Tyhrolovy: roman; Ohnenne kolo: povistí. Kyiv: "Ukrainsíkyi pysímennyk", 1996

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Solovki
Documentary film Solovki (Solovki-Solovets Special camps), produced by Sovkino, 1928, director A.A. Cherkasov. An official propaganda film about labor camps. HU OSA 317-t70-0-1
The White Sea Canal

Documentary film The White Sea Canal (Belomorsko-Baltiiskii Vodnyi Put') produced by Vostokfilm, 1936, director Aleksandr Lemerg. An official propaganda film about the construction of the White Sea Canal. HU OSA 317-t70-0-1

Latest version is available at www.osa.ceu.hu/gulag