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BOX-FOLDER-REPORT: 94-4-191
TITLE:             The Redefection Campaign in Czechoslovakia
BY:                
DATE:              1957-1-25
COUNTRY:           Yugoslavia
ORIGINAL SUBJECT:  

--- Begin ---

FROM THE EVALUATION AND RESEARCH SECTION 25 JANUARY 1957

THE REDEFECTION CAMPAIGN IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA

The general amnesty for redefectors lasted,
with extensions, from 9 May 1955 through 30
November 1956, when it was brought to a
sudden end. This survey, prepared by the CS
Evaluation Desk, is based on our own and
official sources, and traces the development and
various aspects of the redefection movement,
from the time of the earliest post-war
returnees. It includes lists of names of known
redefectors.

RADIO FREE EUROPE - NEWS AND INFORMATION SERVICE - MUNICH

INDEX

Page

Summary	1
Introductory Notes	2
PART I - Redefection Before the Amnesty	5
PART II - The HEPND Movement	9
PART III - The Amnesty. Composition of Committee for Care of Redefectors	13
PART IV - "Voice of the Homeland"	19
PART V - Processing and Interrogation	22
VI - Job Opportunities. Attitude of the Population	28
PART VII - Characteristics of Some Redefectors 	36
PART VIII - Re-redefectors	42
PART IX - Official Figures	44
PART X - Countries of Redefection	49
PART XI - Lists of Names	50

CS Evaluation:
RE-EMIGRANTS	2700
EXILE	1200
Communist Espionage of Exile	1206
Refugees and Emigrants	1204
PROPAGANDA	2600
Anti-Western	2601

[page 1]

SUMMARY

Part I: "Redefection Cases Before the Amnesty of May 9 1955"
covers the conditions of redefection prior to the
general amnesty of May 9 1955 and information about
the fate of the early redefectors.

Part II: "HEPND-Movement of Exiles for Return Home" furnishes
a schematic picture of the redefection development in
respect to refugee camps and countries where refugees
lived.

Part III: "The Amnesty (May 9 1955 through November 30 1956.)
Composition of the Committee for Care of Redefectors."
This chapter quotes the official wording of the
amnesty, dwells on commentaries to same and furnishes
data relative to members of the Committee. It lists
also actions of the Committee, carried out with all
probability on the orders of some other authority.

Part IV: "Hlas Domova - Voice of Homeland, the official paper
of the Committee for Redefectors." This chapter deals
with the important columns of the paper and some of
its collaborators. The PRAGUE-edited paper is mailed
to refugees abroad only. Its publishing is continued
also after the end of amnesty.

Part V: "Processing and Interrogation of Redefectors upon
their Arrival in Czechoslovakia" extracts its material
from various sources, above all from depositions made
by re-redefectors. It furnishes information of the
formalities and processing a redefector is subjected
to from his crossing of the border through his stay
at the redefectors1 centers to his release to
civilian life.

Part VI: "Redefectors - Their Changes of Jobs. Concensus of
the Population's Opinion Concerning Them." We use both
official and our own sources to give the reasons they
had to escape and quote what the population thinks of
them."

[page 2]

Part VII: "Characteristics of Some Redefectors. An Estimate
of Their Number" contains a summary of data available.

Part VIII: "Re-redefectors" lists the escapees for second time,
gives "brief information concerning them and contains
a list of Information Items dealing with them.

Part IX: "Development of Redefection in Light of the known
Official Lists of Names." Official figures, taken
from regime sources are quoted in this chapter. As
we already mentioned in our Evaluation Comment to
Special Report No. 160/1955 and in Part VII of this
report, we are unable to furnish exact figures because
of the way the regime formulates its redefection news
and because our own sources could not cover all the
cases.

Part X: "Survey of Countries of Redefection" is compiled from
confirmed data.

Part XI: "Nominal Roll of Redefectors" contains in its first
section (see ad A) names of persons known to have
returned to Czechoslovakia prior to the May 1955
amnesty. The second section (see ad B) contains an
alphabetical list of redefectors, compiled from
regime and our own sources. An appendix contains a.
list of special cases.

INTRODUCTORY NOTES:

On the occasion of the official end of the amnesty
of May 19555 ending on November 9 1955, we published as Special
Report No.160 the "Survey of Redefection Cases." The Committee
for Redefectors at PRAGUE meanwhile asked the National Front
to ratify a prolongation of the amnesty. The ratification was
announced by President ZAPOTOCKY on January 1 1956. We make
use of official sources, Information Items and various
background reports to fill in and, in some cases, correct the
above mentioned Special Report. We report here facts pertinent
to the development of the amnesty activities. The amnesty was
in force until November 30 1956 (see Part III.)

There is no doubt by now that the Return Home
action is a part of the post-Stalin propaganda drive. It is
meant to convince both the Czechoslovak population and the
exiles that everything is in the best possible order in Czecho-

[page 3]

slovakia. "Wherever you were, you were badly off -- now you
are fine and dandy at home" goes like a "Leitmotiv" through
all the articles written to the greater glory of the campaign
The article may pertain as well to a Slovak who left the
country thirty years ago and who is returning to die among
his own as to a Czech who joined the German Army during the
war and later accepted German citizenship and years after
discovered his Czech heart. Or the subject may be a person
who left the country for political reasons or other after the
Communist violation of the country in February 1948 and comes
ruefully back. We find it therefore expedient to divide the
returned Czechoslovak subjects into three subgroups whom, for
convenience's sake, we shall call re-emigrants, returnees and
redefectors respectively.

Immediately after the world war II. when Czechoslovakia
was established again as a sovereign nation. Czechoslovak born
emigrants who often lived abroad for ten years or more started to return home
There were, as far as we know, some 180-000 of such re-emigrants
in the spring of 1949 (Lid. demokracie of July 14 1949.) We
assume that most of them came from "Prance, Belgium and the
USSR Volynia region. The Communist propaganda operates with
these persons, above all in the "Cs, Svet" (Czechoslovak
World) published for Czechs and Slovaks abroad- but does not,
at least up to now, make them appear as redefectors.

The subgroup which we call "returnees" comprises
in official sources all Czechoslovak subjects who left
Czechoslovakia after 1945, after the liberation of Czechoslovakia from
Nazism and who are returning home now within the framework of
the amnesty. This interesting fact is mentioned in Part III
of this report. The text of the amnesty makes it evident that
pardoned will be"... persons guilty of the crime of leaving
the republic under the influence of enemy propaganda." It is
only the commentaries to the amnesty which broaden it to
include also persons who left after 1945. The quotation is
from Rude Pravo, the official paper of the Party, of June 10
1955.

Czechoslovakia was as well known, divided by
HITLER (in March 1939) into two separate parts -- protectorate
Bohemia and Moravia administered by the Third Reich and Slovakia,
where the so-called Slovak Republic came into being. After the
unification of both parts in 1945 soma tens of thousands of
persons left Czechoslovakia. From 1945 till 1948 those who left

[page 4]

were persons who had reason to believe that the state
administration with Communists in influential positions for the first time
would interfere with them. Here we classify Russian refugees who
settled in Czechoslovakia in considerable numbers after the
Bolshevik revolution in Russia. To the same group belong inhabitants
of Carpathian Ruthenia, formerly part of Czechoslovakia, after the
war ceded to the USSR.

It has, however, to be mentioned that among the
people to escape in 1945 to 1948 were also persons guilty of
collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime, tearing retribution
for their nefarious activities.

The amnesty, according to commentaries, also allowed
an impune return to the latter category. This is a fairly
typical sample of Communist proceedings, the general line of their
propaganda being to classify resistants to Communism together
with collaborators with the Nazis.

The text of the amnesty showed, and we are borne out
in that respect by Parts II, III and IT, that the amnesty was
primarily intended for persons who escaped after February 1948,
i.e. after the Communist coup d'état. These we term re defectors.

The roll annexed to this report [Part XI,] contains
names of the returnees and redefectors -- i.e. all persons
reported by official sources to have returned.

We should conclude by answering the question whether
the Communists achieved the ends aimed at by the re defection
campaign i.e. disruption of the exile and repatriation of its
larger part. The assumption that this was what they aimed at
is warranted by all facts we were able to gather and include in
this report.

After scrutinizing all sources available, we found
that 839 persons, including their wives of foreign origin and
children under 18 years of age, returned to Czechoslovakia. The
actual number of all the returned persons during the year and a
half of the duration of the amnesty could, according to our
estimate, be 150 to 250 higher. The CS authorities did not give the
actual number of them even after the end of amnesty. [The estimated
number of post 1949 refugees living abroad is 40 to 60,000.]

Part VI of this report gives examples of different
kinds of refugees -- refugees from justice, would-be soldiers of
fortune, etc.

There are many such among the redefectors and that
tends again to diminish the impact of the Return-Home campaign.
The expenses incurred with the organization and publishing of
HEPND [see Part II] and the functions of the Committee [see Part
III] seem to be out of proportion to the number of returned
refugees.

[page 5]

While attacking the exile, the Communist propaganda
is careful to distinguish "between the "prominent" and the
"simple refugees." Despite this ZAPOTOCKY in his New Year
speech of 1956 invited also these "prominents" to return. The
employees of the Czechoslovak Embassy in PARIS tried, for
example, to persuade the former deputy Alois CIZEE to return. With
the exception of Dr. Lev SYCHRAVA they did not meet with success
in their endeavor.

Part X, the list of countries whence the redefectors
came, shows the result of the Return Home" propaganda in
individual countries. They were most successful in countries where
there are still refugee camps, above all in Germany.

A 62-year-old lawyer, subsource of WELS RMS Item No.
7451/55 voiced the opinion that refugees are led to the idea to
redefect "by a certain disenchantment brought about by the
shattered hopes of a quick emigration and a long period of forced
permanence in the camp." We agree with him.

One thing, however, is certain and might be considered
as an achievement, although a rather expensive one. "Voice of
Homeland" became, thanks to ample funds and the extensive
mailing list compiled by the Czechoslovak diplomatic missions, and
kept up to date by the redefectors, one of the most read exile
papers. Although it did not register much success in recruiting
redefectors it is a potential danger as a disseminator of
distrust among and to the exile.

PART I

REDEFECTION CASES BEFORE THE AMNESTY OF MAY 9 1955

The experiences of refugees who spent longer periods
of time in the post-1948 refugee camps enable us to say that
redefection cases were extant already then, i.e. during the first
year following the Communist coup d'état. These early redefectors
were people who turned back practically just as the left the
country. We believe that most of these redefection cases were
illegal, neither the German authorities, IRO (International Refugee
Organization) nor the Czechoslovak authorities were approached.

We assume that some of the would-be refugee redefectors
tried to return by permission of Czechoslovak consular offices.
This is confirmed by a circular letter of the Czechoslovak
Ministry of foreign Relations to the Czechoslovak Missions in the West.
This document, published as RFE MUNICH Item No.3141/55, may be
inspected at the Czechoslovak Evaluation Desk. The first circular
is dated October 5 1949, the second March 15 1950 and both concern
"matters concerning Czechoslovak refugees intending to return home."
They explain that every individual case has to be examined by the
Ministry of Interior -- applications are to be treated
individually and the successful applicants will be granted a return on which

[page 6]

"impunity is guaranteed." They are to be given an emergency
travel document, valid for one trip to Czechoslovakia only;
the border is to "be crossed at a determined station.

The applicant had to complete a questionnaire
mentioned in the a/m document. This contained, beside the usual
questions concerning the applicants life story, date and place
of escape also the question of "how does the applicant intend to
join the reconstruction effort of the Czechoslovak people."

We have some concrete sources of information as to
the practical handling of those early redefection cases. "Voice
of Homeland" edited by the Committee for Care of Redefectors,
of June 22 1955 mentions the case of a certain Vlastimil
VSETICKA, now 33 years old, who redefected in 1949, a few months
after his escape abroad. He spent his first five months at
home being interrogated [in jail,] was cleared and lives as a
free man.

The first issue of the same paper, published on June
14 1955, describes the case of the Otokar HASEK, who joined the
French Foreign Legion after his escape from Czechoslovakia.
HASEK deserted in 1950 to Ho-Chi-Minh and was sent to the University
upon his return to Czechoslovakia [probably in 1953.] The same
issue brings the case of Miroslav SURY who returned from the
French Foreign Legion in 1951 and who is supposedly free, The
case of Ervin PALES is also given in the same paper: PALES
deserted from the legion to HO-CHI-MINH and returned to
Czechoslovakia in 1954. The August 2 1955 issue of "Voice of Homeland
brings another version of his redefection: He returned to
Czechoslovakia in 1952 "together with 20 other Czechoslovak subjects"
after 30 months' service with the Vietminh Communist Army.

A series of our own sources bring intelligence of
redefectors who did not wait for a general amnesty. So subsource
of RFE "MUNICH Item No. 9828/54 asserts having met with some eight
to ten redefectors in the forced labor camps of the JACHYMOV or
PRIBRAM area.

The redefectors he met with there were sentenced, on
the average to 12 years. One of them, [fnu] KRECEK, returned to
Czechoslovakia in 1949, having been told by a member of the
Czechoslovak mission in FRAUKFURT that he may return impunely. He
has, however, been sentenced to 12 years in December 1949.
KRECSE was still in an concentration camp in July 1954 -- camp
BYTIZ in the PRIBRAM uranium area. The same subsource tells us
about /fnu/ KRAHULEC who escaped West as a 19 year old boy in
1948 and returned in 1949. KRAHULEC was also sentenced to 12
years and was in camp Nikolay in JACHYMOV in April 1954.

WELS RFE Item No. 9684/54 concerns the case of Vladimir
NENUTIL, who escaped in 1950 and redefected in 1951. NENUTIL
was sentenced to 15 years. Two years were taken off his sentence late
on, The subsource of this Item is the redefector's wife who
succeeded in escapingto Austria in 1954c MUNICH RFE Item No. 14192/52

[page 7]

reports that [fnu] VLASTOVICKA has been sentenced to 15 years
after his return to Czechoslovakia.

Subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No. 671/56 met Anton
KOMAREK in camp BYTIZ in the PRIBRAM area who returned to
Czechoslovakia in 1953 from camp VALKA near NURNBERG and who was
arrested and sentenced to 15 years as an "American spy" the very
same year.

HAMBURG RFE Item No. 11344/54 brings the story of
Josef BRYCH and Karel LEBEDA who returned to Czechoslovakia
in the summer of 1954 in the hope of finding a job and pardon
but who were arrested and given 12 years.

The redefection of Maria LEYEROVA has been announced
by MUNICH RPE Item No. 9039/54 of October 1954. He further fate
is not known.

The official Czechoslovak sources admit the jailing
of one redefector only, namely Adolf KLIMA who returned in 1953
and became subsequently "guilty of crimes" and was therefore
sentenced and committed to jail. [Hlas Domova of August 2 1955].

Three more groups of redefectors have to be discussed
in this context.

VIENNA RFE Item No. 7444/54 of May 1954 reports: "A
VIENNA resident received a message from PRAGUE which stated: In
early morning hours of May 14 1954 approximately 300 prisoners
of war of Czechoslovak nationality, captured by the. Viet-Minh
troops, were turned in at PANKRAC prison". This specific ease
seems to relate to the less fortunate prisoners and differs from
deserters. The prisoners were brought to Czechoslovakia and their
further fate is unknown. The above mentioned cases of PALES and
SURY confirm redefection cases of former French Foreign Legionnaires
in Vietnam.

The second group should include the case of Jirina
BENESOVA and Josef SVEINAR. Both escaped West in 1950 and lived
together in the refugee camps. They returned to Czechoslovakia
in 1954./ MUNICH RFE Item No. 10524/54/ MUNICH RFE Items Nos.
4630/55 and 874/56 confirms the opinion that they were Communist
agents sent to the West. - A similar case seems to be that of
Frantisek ZVOLSKI who redefected in July 1954. [Radio PRAGUE
broadcast on July 31 1954 the press conference held with ZVOLSKY.]

Dubious cases like that of Bohumil LAUSMAN should be
included in the third group, LAUSMAN, the former chairman of the
Social Democratic Party, has been in exile from January 1950 till
December 1953. He disappeared from his flat in SALZBURG under
suspicious circumstances at Christmas 1953. Radio PRAGUE broadcast
on the eve of the elections on May 16 1954 excerpts from a press
conference held with LAUSMAN. LAUSMAN declared during the conference
that he returned to Czechoslovakia of his own free will on December
25 1953. LAUSMAN's present fate is unknown. The extreme rumors
are that he is being used and that he heads a department of
questions of the Czechoslovak exile.

[page 8]

Bruno FOLTA, who is now 21, redefected under rather
unclear conditions, in the summer of 1954. Since he used to
work with RFE he was interviewed during a press conference an
September 29 1954. The last news about him is that he is serving
his Army term.

LINZ RFE Item No. 2704/55 reports the redefection
of the 50 years-old Oldrich OLEHLIK from Austria in February
1955. The most acceptable explanation of this case seems to be the
acceptance of the rumor that he was under the influence of the
then rather widespread rumors of the forthcoming amnesty. There
has, however, been no confirmation of his redefection by official
sources.

Concluding this part of our report of the redefection
campaign, we would like to shed some light on the assertion of
the Chairman of the Committee for Care of Redefectors. Dr.
Miroslav KLINGER, published in the editorial of "Voice of
Homeland” of August 2 1955. He said there that the amnesty of
1953 gave the possibility to return immunely. We studied the
pertinent "presidential and governmental resolution" ["Rude Pravo
of May 4 1953] and found that none of these clauses of that amnesty
applied to refugees. The first amnesty to apply to the refugees
is that of May 9 1955. [for the text of same please see Part
III of this report.]

The evidence on hand tends to indicate that refugees
returning prior to the last amnesty were arrested soon after
their return and sentenced under various pretenses to jail --
the average term being 12 years.

Exception, of course, to be made of special cases like
legionnaires--deserters -- PALES, HASEK, agents' like SVEJNAR and
SVOLSKY and propaganda exploitable cases like the former RFE
employee FOLTA or the politician of renown LAUSMA2T. The press
conferences staged with LAUSMAN, ZVOLSKY and FOLTA could be
considered to fit into the scheme of the "Return Home" drive.

The alphabetical list of those who returned home prior
to the amnesty of May 1953 is to be found in Part XI [ad A.]
of this report.

[page 9]

PART II

"HEPND - Movement of Exiles for
Return Home."

Rumors about the amnesty of political refugees
already appeared in the spring of 1954. ROME RFE Item No. 4880/54
was the first to report it. The rumor that the amnesty was
expected to "become effective at Christmas was brought to our
attention by the STOCKHOLM RFE Item No. 10915/54. MUNICH RFE Item
No. 674/55 corrected that date and its subsource assumed that the
amnesty would be proclaimed on the anniversary of the Communist
seizure of power i.e. in February 1955. HOME RFE Item No. 1433/55
of March reported the circulation of rumors concerning the amnesty
among the Party members in Czechoslovakia, and putting the date
of operativeness as May 1955.

MUNICH RFE Item No. 3230/55 quoted in March 1955
rumors spreading in camp VALKA near NUERNBERG, according to which
the amnesty should even cover persons sentenced to ten years
imprisonment.

An interesting piece of news was brought by VIENNA
RFE Item No. 7255/54 where it is said: "PRAGUE government will
announce an amnesty for refugees who might want to return to the
CSR. It was suspected -- at that time -- that the report was
spread by the Russians." A Czech resident of VIENNA inquired
about the possibility of her return at the Czechoslovak Embassy
there and v/as told "that she might be able to get a passport and
return to Czechoslovakia." (This possibility, however, as we know
from the documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, quoted in
Part I of this report, already existed as far back as 1949.)

A new element appeared in the doubtlessly Communist
inspired whispered propaganda shortly before Christmas 1954
the so-called chain letters signed HEPND and mailed from
different places in the West. The contents were aimed at the
religious and patriotic feelings of the refugees: "You too should
help to disseminate the beautiful idea of HEPND and join our
thousands-strong ranks. You too should help to realize the great
task shedding its light like the Star of Bethlehem. The Star is
that of return..." The addressee was asked to make three copies
of that letter and to mail them to his friends. (The full text
of this letter has been published in MUNICH RFE Item No. 674/55,
LINZ RFE Item No. 1402/55 and commentaries on it in "New World,
Bulletin of the American Fund for Czechoslovak Refugees," No. 1.

[page 10]

These letters, the number of which is not known
here, were followed by the first issue of the hectographed
newspaper HEPND published in February 1955. The name HEPND
is a composition of the capitals of "Hnuti Exulantu Pro Navrat
Domu" - Movement of Exiles For Return Home. The issue had
six mimeographed pages. It was probably intentionally
primitively set-up. The same would-be naivete manifested itself in some
of the articles, ditties and drawings. The mainstay of the
entire paper were attacks on exile leaders and appeals to the
refugees to refuse emigration.

The paper's first issue says: "We are certain that
you would like to write us as well but we are sorry to disappoint
you. We cannot give you our address. Rest assured, however.
There are many of us. We are to be found everywhere. We are,
simply, your kind. We want to help you in your search of the
right way and the only right way now is to return home."
Although the editors and administrators remained unknown, the
very first issue of "HEPND" carried a column called ""From Our
Mailbox" containing readers' letters such as an item signed
"Mln" thanking HEPND for the their letter and assuring them of his
complete agreement with the ideas expressed therein. (LINZ RFE
Item No. 1877/55.) Still the address remained anonymous.
Nevertheless the paper carried the "From the Mailbox" column, beginning
with issue No.3. (LINZ RFE Item No.3675/55.)

The first issue of HEPND contained six directives
for those who'd wish to return. Directive No.4 reads: "Do not
leave the organization in which you are members. Wait for
further instructions." No. six ordered the refugee to copy these
instructions and to mail them to his friends.

Fifth issue of HEPND appeared in the first half of
May 1955 and carried a feature entitled "The Amnesty Is a Great
Victory of HEPND." (MUNICH HFE Item No.4340/55.) Number six
of the same paper reported that "nine employees of RFE applied
for re-admission to Czechoslovakia."

The entire HEPND activity comprised seven issues.
The paper was mailed to sometimes erroneous, sometimes correct
addresses of individual refugees, in some instances more than
one copy was received from different Western countries.
Information available indicates BERLIN, VIENNA and France as the most
active mailing centers.

[page 11]

The last issue of HEPND was dated June 16 1955.
It brings the news of the "Committee for Care of Redefectors"
established in PRAGUE and contains instructions for those who
wish to make use of the amnesty. It recommends to turn to the
Czechoslovak consular offices abroad and to head straight for
the Czechoslovak border in the case of the refugees in Germany
It also announces: "This is the last issue of this paper. It
is no longer necessary... We furnished the proof that not all
exiles are enemies of the people and of peace. The exiles'
interest shows that our assurances given to the National Front
and to the Czechoslovak government were not vain boasts. Not
all the active members of our movement may return now. Some
of us will remain here to help the development of your
resettlement. We shall observe the situation and put the obstacles
out of your way."

The existence of HEPND partisans is mentioned in
this paper (No.3 mentions "country groups" and No.7 "trustees")
as well as in our own sources. So MUNICH REE Item No.4002/55
and Special Report No.67/l955 cover the activities of the camp
Valka HEPND cell directed by a certain Vojtech BALCAR. People
interested in redefection used to meet in BALCAR's room twice
a week and BALCAR paid for their tobacco and drinks although
he is unemployed and has no earnings. (He is still in camp
VAEKA.)

Our correspondent asserts in MUNICH REE Item No
3003/56 that Jiri GRANT alias Miroslav ZIARFO is in the same
category. While reporting about the redefection of Ladislav
BEDNAR, SALZBURG REE Item No.8614/55 classifies him as "having
worked for HEPND."

The propaganda which developed from whispered
propaganda, through chain letters to the edition of the paper
HEPND was supplemented by the activity of HEPND cells managed
by, in all probability, Communist agents and was further
helped by letters from Czechoslovakia. MUNICH RFE Item No.
3783/55 of March 1955 illustrates this by bringing a letter
written by relatives to a refugee in camp VAIKA urging him to
redefect. A refugee who escaped in 1950 received a letter from
the chairman of the Local National Committee of his hometown
(HAZLOV district AS) and was told to return home. (MUNICH REE
Item No.3119/55.) Confidential source of WELS REE Item No.
6968/55 asserts that letters enticing refugees to return
originate with the Secret Police. This, subsource maintains.

[page 12]

is the current rumor in PRAGUE.

We are unable to substantiate the above assertion
with evidence; the facts quoted in this report, however, tend
to suggest some similar explanation of the entire "Return Home"
campaign. It might be incorrect to assume that the campaign was
organized by the Security Police since it could have been
organized as well by the regime Communist propaganda apparatus,
the latter being directly interested in paralysing the exile
influence abroad as well as the influence its broadcasting
stations might exert at home. [See also Part IV concerning
Voice of Homeland.]

Although both the chain-written letters, and the
paper "HBPND" endeavored to make "made in exile" look
spontaneous, they did not succeed in making the "Action Return
Home" look like the work of exiles. Both the contents and the
distribution of the above show a well organized interference.

HEPND, in its chain letters and its periodical,
talks in the name of the so-called small, common refugee, who'd
been misled by the exile leaders and who lives in poverty, nay
in misery. It would stand to reason that one must doubt the
simple financial ability of the refugee proletariat, [to use this
term,] to undertake the expense of editing and mailing the two
discussed media. The mailing list alone incorporates a considerable
effort which had to be paid for. An organization of the exile
underprivileged would, doubtlessly, find it difficult to find
all the Francs, pfennings, pence , lire, shillings etc. to cover
the mailing charges. The suspiciously well-organized HEPND outfit
overcame these rudimentary obstacles.

The feature writers of HEPND are, on one hand, quite
willing to use the well-worn patriotic cliches and to go as far
as to appeal to religious sentiment; on the other hand they
use a sort of language more than faintly reminiscent of the
Communist media in their attacks on exile leaders and their
big words about PEACE. The last issue of HEPND was published on
June 16 1955 and announced its own discontinuation, stating
that it would no longer be required. At the same time it was
replaced by the "Voice of Homeland," mailed to the refugees in
accordance with the HEPND mailing list. That issue is dated June
14 1955. "Voice of Homeland" is published by the "Committee for
Care of Persons who Would Return Within the Framework of the
Amnesty."

[page 13]

PART III

THE AMNESTY. Composition of the Committee
for Care of Redefectors.

An amnesty applicable to refugees as an entity
was signed by the president of the republic, Antonin ZAPOTOCKY,
on May the 9th 1955, the anniversary of the "liberation of
Czechoslovakia by the Soviet Armies." Part VII of this decree
says textually: "I pardon hereby punishments by jail to all
rightly sentenced to them for the crime of leaving the republic
before the day of the issue of this decree under the influence
of enemy propaganda, provided the offenders shall return to the
republic's territory not later than six months after this date."

The CP.'s official paper, "Rude Pravo" of June 10
1955 defines more exactly those who are affected by the amnesty
in its report concerning the same. "The presidential amnesty...
allows the return of those persons who left the country after
1945. "We may well ask what kind of enemy propaganda it was which
made Czechoslovak citizens leave the country as early as 1945.

The radio commentary to the amnesty, broadcast on
June 11 1955 said that refugees "regardless of ethnic origin,
creed, political opinion or party membership" may return to
Czechoslovakia. Such persons, however, must be in Czechoslovakia
at the latest on November 9 1955. On January 1 1956, this deadline
was, as we shall illustrate later on, postponed to an unknown
date. Then, on November 30 1956, quite unexpectedly, the end of
the amnesty was announced by the Office of the President of the
Republic.

The Board of the Central Committee of the National
Front decided three weeks after the announcement of the amnesty
[in June 1955] to constitute a so-called "Committee for Providing
for Persons Returning to Czechoslovakia Within the Framework of
the Amnesty [Henceforth referred to as "Committee For Redefectors."]

Dr. Miroslav KLINGER became the Chairman of this
Committee, Vojtech DAUBNER Deputy-Chairman, and the members are
Bozena HOLECKOVA, Jozef LIETAVEC, Ivan LITVAJ, Rostislav PETERA,
Josef SKUPA, Alois SUBR and Andrej ZIAK. Vaclav VALTR was named
its secretary.

Miroslav KLINGER, deputy of the National Assembly,
is the secretary general of the Czechoslovak Socialist Party, i.e.
officially a non-Communist, merely a regime fellow-traveler.
Till 1948 he was one of the most active functionaries of the
widely-popular organization SOKOL. It is highly probable that
the Communists counted on his reputation of a non-Communist and
a SOKOL functionary when they assigned him to this post. Voitech
DAUBNER, a Slovak, deputy and chairman of the Slovak Trade Unions,
is an organized Communist as is Bozena HOLECKOVA. HOLECKOVA was
a deputy until 1954; at present she" is Chief Editor of the biggest
Czechoslovak publishing house, "Orbis." Jozef LIETAVEC, a Slovak,

[page 14]

is the chairman of the Slovak Red Cross - his political
affiliation is not known but it might be assumed, in light of
his function, that he is a Communist. Ivan LITVAJ, secretary of
the Slovak Committee of the Czechoslovak Youth League [GSM]
is an organized member of the Slovak Communist Party. Rostislav
PETERA is chief editor of Lidova Demokracie, the official
paper of the People's [Catholic] Party. Josef SKUPA, a so-called
National Artist, the leading Czechoslovak puppet show director,
is in all probability an organized Communist. Andrej ZIAK,
Deputy-Chairman of the National Assembly, decorated by the Czechoslovak
Prize of1 the Peace, etc, represents the Slovak Protestants and is
a member of the so-called Party of Slovak Revival. Alois SUBR and
Vaclav VALTR are personas novae. Both are in all probability
Communists.

This Committee set to work on June 3 1955. Its
office were established in PRAGUE 1, Dr. Vacek Square, in the
now townhall. One of its first tasks was the founding of a
paper - "Hlas domova"- "Voice of Homeland" -- which we already
quoted above and which we shall endeavor to describe in more
detail in Part IV of this report. The Committee also interested
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the redefection campaign.
Announcements advertising the amnesty and signed by the
Czechoslovak diplomatic offices abroad appeared in the Western
press as early as June 1955, advising the refugees to file their
applications to return. "France Soir" brought forth such an
advertisement as early as June 6 1.955 and "Easier Nachrichten" on
June 16 1955. "The Times," "Manchester Guardian" and, of course,
the "Daily Worker" published them at dates not exactly known
here.

A further, less official, action of the Committee
for Redefectors seemed to be the "Inviting Letters" written by
the redefectors. Subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No 2930/56, a
redefector whom we consider reliable, states that the personnel
engaged in the interrogation of redefectors encourages correspondence
with friends in refugee camps with a view of obtaining such
letters. An entire series of such letters may be inspected at the
CS Evaluation Desk. The writers use many different arguments.
The author of a letter reproduced in MUNICH RFE Item No 1284/56
says "Do not forget your old pal..." "I am going to church,
to Communion and Confession and no one has done anything to prevent
me from it..." is the main argument of the writer of a letter
quoted in MUNICH RFE Item No. 1219/56. Another letter, reproduced
in MUNICH RFE Item No. 2128/56 says: "Earnings, when compared
with prices, are higher here than in Germany...."

It was quite a usual occurrence that persons known
to contemplate redefection were literally swamped with these
letters. There was, for instance, the case of the refugee Emil
S. of Camp Valka, [as reported in MUNICH RFE Item Nos. 147,156,
868 and 1147/56,] who received such letters. They were all in the
same tenor: everything goes smoothly, one has nothing, to fear
and for that matter no-one to be afraid of, Czechoslovakia is
a veritable Garden of Eden, and so forth.

We feel justified in our assumption that the Committee

[page 15]

for Redefectors or its collaborators were the motive force of
these letters.

Information available here tends to indicate that
this Committee endeavored to employ as its collaborators those
redefectors whom it judged well qualified. The re defector Vaclav
MISEK wrote to his friends in Germany: "Those of us who are in
PRAGUE try, during our meetings held in the offices of the "Voice
of Homeland," to compile as extensive a list of our acquaintance's
still abroad as possible." [MUNICH RYE Item No. 868/56.] The
former French Foreign Legionary, Jaroslav RAJSIGL, tells his
friend in a letter dated November 10 1955 that he is in charge
of the former legionnaires and that each of them may join the
Army according to his abilities. Marie DVORAKOVA Sr., the
mother of the former RFE employee Marie DVCRAKOVA whom she
accompanied in her redefection in November 1955 writes that she
lives in Hotel Belvedere and that she receives a stipend from
the Committee for Redefectors. [MUNICH RYE Item No. 1219/56].
Hotel Belvedere is known to be administered by either the CP
or the Youth League and is supposed to be an education center for
Soviet military spies and agents.

ROME RFE Item No. 9857/55 asserts that the
Czechoslovak Embassy in ROME pays every refugee who signed his
redefection papers 3000 lire per diem until his return to
Czechoslovakia.

A letter received by some Czechoslovak refugees
in SALZBURG is reported in SALZBURG RYE Item No. 9445/55. The
letter in question was received by the refugees on November 2
1955 and contained an offer of the Czechoslovak Embassy in
VIENNA to give them detailed information as to their eventual
return. It is mere than probable that the Committee for Redefectors
had its finger in that pie too.

A further activity of the discussed organization
was the staging of press conferences with the redefectors. The
conferences were attended by press and radio reporters of the
regime. On June 4 1955, one day after the official beginning of
its activity, the Committee organized a press conference with
Vladimir KUCERA, a redefector who, while in Germany, co-operated
on some RFE broadcasts. Another one, Karel DIVIS, who redefected
from Canada had to say later on that "he prepared his return in
secret as to avoid interference." [Oct 25 1955.]

Subsource of MUNICH RYE Item No. 6745/56, a
redefector, told our correspondent that the Czechoslovak
journalists were not aware of the fact that the redefectors were
subjected to a special screening before being interviewed. They
believed that they were meeting them immediately after their arrival
in Czechoslovakia. It may thus be assumed that the Committee kept
the processing secret which every redefector was subjected to.
[cf. Part V.]

The "Zdenek Nejedly Realist Theatre" of PRAGUE brought

[page 16]

out a new play "I'd like to Return." The opening performance
of the play, written by the radio dramaturgist Frantisek PAVLICEK,
was played on February 11 1956. The following is the approximate
synopsis: Setting: Refugee camp GOETTIN. Time: Shortly before
the amnesty. Cast: camp leader -- a German collaborating with an
American Officer and an Exile Functionary named CIHAK. Student
Refugee Marek. The first three try to make the camp inmates join
the Foreign Legion before the official announcement of the amnesty.
The student, however, succeeds in making their plans fail and
returns to the folds of the Fatherland.

Thin "play" makes us believe that the influence
of the Committee or its sponsors reached also to the theatre
world.

The amnesty's appointed time was, officially, over
by November 9 1955. A letter by the redefector Antonin PICHA,
dated November, 6 1955 and addressed to an inmate of Camp VALKA,
written on the Committee's premises, asserts that the amnesty
would be prolonged. /MUNICH RFE Item No. 10670/55./ MUNICH RFE
Item No. 10671/55 reporting a conversation of a Bavarian with
a Czechoslovak Border Guard, reveals that the Czechoslovak BGs
have been instructed to receive redefectors even after the
official expiring of the amnesty. The reported conversation took
place in November 1955.

An editorial signed by Dr. Miroslav KLINGER
appeared in the "Voice of .Homeland" of November 15 1955, asserting
that the Committee for Redefectors -- "in spirit of Socialist
Humanism-' -- and, in view of the fact that many refugees were,
for reasons beyond their control unable to return in time and
because relatives of refugees who had not yet returned and
approached the Committee asking for help in return of these
citizens and in view of the applications of many such citizens
bad decided to recommend the Central Committee of the National
Front the following:

1. Such citizens who applied for the permission
to return prior to November the 9th 1955 and who are still
abroad will be permitted to return even after the expiration
of the official term.

2. By way of special dispensation individual
[our underlining] refugees will be able to obtain a permission
to return."

This suggestion of the Committee for Redefectors
was not answered by either the Central Committee of the National
Front or the Parliament but President ZAPOTOCKY said in his New
Year address on January 1st 1956 that "all the provisions of the
amnesty remain valid." Here we feel obliged to add that ZAPOTOCKY
broadened the wording of the amnesty. No 6 of HEPND -- see Part II
-- asserted that the amnesty does not cover e.g. members of the
Council of Free Czechoslovakia. ZAPOTOCKY on the other hand, said
that "everybody with an honest will to work, including the former
so-called prominents, has still an open possibility to return."

[page 17]

["Voice of Homeland" of January 17 1956.]

This means that the Committee for Redefectors or
rather that political branch of the regime which uses the
Committee to direct the redefection campaign found the prolongation
of the amnesty useful and recommended the necessary steps. The
phrase "Socialist Humanism" is found very often in the "Voice
of Homeland." Thus did the then just appointed Committee assert
on June 14 1955 that it would be led by the "ideals of socialist
humanism" and the editorial of the "Voice of Homeland" of June
12 1956 celebrating the Committee's first anniversary brings
"socialist humanism" again. Help in redefection became "an
act of profound humanitarism," etc The entire redefection action
tastes, however, too much of political propaganda to be taken
for a sign or measure of the humanitarian intentions of the
present Czechoslovak regime, We shall try to shed some more
light on that particular problem further on in this report.

MUNICH RFE Item No. 4179/56 informs us that the
Committee for Care of Redefectors was under the patronage and
control of the Ministry, of Interior. We believe that this assertion
is true. It is borne out by details available regarding the processing
of redefectors as further illustrated in Part V. of this report
and for example the case reported in MUNICH RFE Item No. 3423/56.
A refugee living in camp ZIRNDORF received a letter from the
Ministry of Interior delivered through the Czechoslovak Military
Mission in BERLIN-DAHLEM. The text said: "The Ministry of the
Interior orders you, in accordance with the decree of July 13
1949, part 7, chapt. 1 c No. 194 Laws and Ordnances to return
to Czechoslovakia at the latest within 30 days from the receipt of
these." The ordnance quoted in the letter says: "The Ministry
of the Interior may withdraw the citizenship from a person residing
abroad and failing to return to Czechoslovakia within 30 days
[90 days if residing overseas] from the day the Ministry's order
to return has been served on him/her."

It is fairly safe to assume that the refugee's
address had been furnished to the Ministry by the Committee for
Redefectors which in its turn received it from one of the
redefectors.

In July 1956 a number of Austrian papers published
the story of the attempted abduction of Frantisek PODLESAK.
["Salzburger Volksblatt" of July 16, "Oberösterreichische
Nachrichten" of the same day, and others.] The refugee PODLESAK lived
in LINZ, Austria. His wife, Drahomira, returned to Czechoslovakia
in April 1956. The papers reported that a certain Vaclav PAVLASEE
appeared at about the same time in the refugee camp. This PAVLASEK
made an effort to become well acquainted with PODLESAK. One day
in July he succeeded in getting him drunk, loaded him into a taxi
cab and tried to bring him to the border. The attempt at abduction
failed thanks to the presence of mind of the driver. PAVLASEE
escaped to Czechoslovakia. It seems that the agent acted on
information furnished by the Committee for Redefectors, obtained
from the victim's wife, redefector Drahomira PODLESAKOVA.

To close this part of the report, we mould wish to

[page 18]

quote, in the first place, Radio BRATISLAVA: "The Committee
for Redefectors... asserts [Sept. 26 1956] that the return of
Czechoslovak citizens within the framework of the presidential
decision regarding the amnesty proceeds satisfactorily. The
Secretariat continues in answering all the questions on this
subject received either from Czechoslovakia or from abroad."
[BRATISLAVA, September 28 1956.]

On November 30 1956, however, Radio PRAGUE, quoting
from an official announcement issued by the office of the
President of Republic, said: "All cases /of the application for
return under the amnesty act/ have practically been settled.
The Office has therefore been authorized to announce, that all
cases will now continue to be dealt with according to the
appropriate provision of the valid regulations."

It had not been announced whether the activities
of the Committee For Redefectors would continue or not. At any
rate, its organ, "Hlas Domova" ["Voice of Homeland"] continues
to be published. Its issue of December 11 1956 reprinted the
statement by the Office of the President of the Republic
concerning the end of amnesty -- and announced that its next
issue would appear in 1957 again.

[page 19]

PART IV

"HLAS DOMOVA" - "VOICE OF HOMELAND" -- the Official
Paper of the Committee for Redefectors.

The first issue of the "Voice of Homeland" bore the
date of June 14 1955, as we pointed out in Part II of this report,
appeared two days prior to the last issue of the mimeographed
sheet HEPND which had circulated among the refugees since February
1955. The subsource of information contained in MUNICH RFE Item
No. 4179/56, a re-redefector, maintains that "Voice of Homeland"
is edited by a former editor [NU] of "Mlada Fronta" [official
paper of the Czechoslovak Youth League.] Details concerning the
set-up of the board of the paper are not available.

"Voice of Homeland" was a weekly till March 20 1956
when it was announced that henceforth it would appear as a
fortnightly. The paper's address is identical with that of the
Committee for Re defectors: PRAGUE 1, Primator Vacek Square --
New Town-Hall.

The sources of MUNICH RFE Items Nos. 6857/55,1880/56 and
4179/56 maintain unanimously that the "Voice of Homeland" is not
available to the general public. This assertion bears out the
conclusion that this paper is printed for Czechoslovaks abroad,
or rather for the refugees. It has been distributed along the
lines of the HEPND address list. The addresses have been apparently
made available by the Czechoslovak diplomatic bureaus active
abroad, agents working abroad and kept up to date by the arriving
redefectors.

In the summer 1955 "Voice of Homeland" arrived in
sealed envelopes directly from PRAGUE. [LINZ RFE Item No. 5615/56.]
In Italy it was distributed from ROME; later it was sent to Italy
directly from PRAGUE in airmail envelopes, the address written in
longhand. We know that it is mailed by airmail to Australia from
PRAGUE. This would indicate that mailing costs are a rather high
expenditure in the distribution of the discussed paper. We are
unable to say what the printing is.

As to the paper's contents:

The editorials are very often signed by prominent
regime fellow travelers. Bishop CARSKY is representing the
Slovak Catholics, the Deputy Premier of the National Assembly,
ZIAK, assumes to talk on behalf of the Slovak Protestants, one
of the editorials has been signed by Dr. KOVAR, the elder of
the Czechoslovak Church, and another by the Director of the
Czechoslovak Caritas, MARA. Of the prominent politicians we
find among the signers Minister SLECHTA, chairman of the
Czechoslovak Socialist Party and Dr. Dionysius POLANSKY one of
the top representatives of the People's Party. The former
chairman of the disbanded organization SOKOL, Josef TRUHLAR, also
appealed from the "Voice" pages to the refugees to return to
Czechoslovakia, where, as he said, everything was in the best of
all possible good orders.

[page 20]

A considerable proportion of the paper is taken
by news from home in which a rosy pictury of Czechoslovakia
is painted. The editors have recourse to the pre-war text books
for poems hardly known to a regime pupil. They foment the
refugee's homesickness with poems like K.V. Raises "The
Hometown Bells," "Way Home," "J.V. Sladek's "Cottages," Neruda's
"Thou Shalst Cherish Thy Homeland Above All" and others similar
to these.

The refugees' sentiments are also attacked in the
Letters from Home column in which letters of their relatives,
exhorting them to return, are printed. These are often
supplemented by quotations of refugees' letters, however, signed with
initials only, where they announce their decision to return.
Another column specializes in the life stories of the recent
redefectors. This column usually contains a letter or two from
such redefectors who had already become integrated into the
Czechoslovak economy. One of such letters is that of Josef
JIROTKA who re defected from Canada. He praises his present
situation and likes above all the fact that he was able to obtain
quarters with a bath-room and all the comforts in PRAGUE. He
says also that he was given a good 30b. Considering our
information concerning the housing situation in PRAGUE and
stemming also from official sources, we must say that redefector
JIROTKA has been exceptionally lucky.

Commentaries directed on the exile take up a
considerable part of "Voice of Homeland" [which, by the way,
has the same name as an exile periodical published in Australia].
The mainstay of these commentaries is the division of the exile
into two parts. The first part 'comprises the leaders of the
politically active exiles, sometimes quoted by names [e.g.
LETTRICH, PEROUTKA, ZENKL] and at other times merely called,
generally "exile prominents." While referring to these, the editon
are rather apt to forego the poetic language and sentiments
Of "the above mentioned poems and are fairly apt to employ, to use
an understatement, a somewhat curious language. The following are
a few samples of the terminology employed: "The broke bosses,"
"the crowing crows," "exile SS officers," "ne'er do wells"
"gravy train sold-outs." There is quite a variety of similar
flattering names. The RFE "jungle" is, of course, used quite
often as well. The second group, as opposed to the "exile
prominents," includes the "rank and file" exiles, the seduced
ones, the disenchanted whom the editors consider likely potential
material for their redefection persuasive efforts. The language
used while dealing with these is more considerate: K.V, writes
in Voice: "Should somebody believe that his return would be
construed as a token of defeat, of admission that the returnee's
hopes of the better life to be reached in the West failed...
he is mistaken. [VoH, September 27 1955.]

The differences between the refugees must not be
omitted. Here we quote "Voice of Homeland" of February 7 1956:
"The question to be posed is: Is there any sense in remaining
abroad, in serving as a decoy to those who, arch-enemies of
our republic, take the beating coming to them and serve them

[page 21]

as a ladder to better positions, which at present are crumbling
below their very feet?"

Attacks on exile personalities are fairly often
followed up by articles, purportedly letters of exiles. The
serial of four articles called "The Sad Accounting Balance of
the Exile" could serve as a typical illustration. This is
supposed to have been written by O.S. who is to be a refugee
living in Canada. ["Voice of Homeland" of February and March
1956.] The September 1956, issues paid special attention to the
"documentation" of the situation prevailing in the Work Committee
of the Council of Free Czechoslovakia. The "information" given
was, supposedly, furnished by a New Jersey, USA reader.

The main aim of similar articles is to throw mud
at the Czechoslovak exile and to bring it into ill repute.

"Voice of Homeland" issues are accompanied by
following slogans: "Voice of Homeland is your permanent tie with
home. Lend it to your friends. We bring the true news from the
country of your birth. We keep you posted on the dirty game
of the "exile exalted." Write us and help us to further our
circulation," and other similar messages. [VoH, September 18
1956, page 2.]

To the facts given: We wish to add the following:

It could not be said that the creators of "Voice of
Homeland" lack cleverness. The editors are well informed about
the situation of the exile. They are provided, as it seems, not
only with the exile press but also with the experiences made by
regime agents during their activity abroad* The fact that the
paper is not distributed in Czechoslovakia liberates the writers
from all the cumbersome restrictions met with by an editor writing
for a paper made for the home market. This results in far greater
a readability since the paper is free of the tedious odes on the
Cz CP and odes on subjects presribed in general."Voice of Homeland"
is a paper in which the regime takes part in the exile life,, The
paper's aim is not solely to influence the refugees and to make
them to redefect. This should not be underestimated and must not
be forgotten. Even more, as it was announced in its issue of
December 11 1956 [page 4], its publishing will continue also in
1957.
[page 22]

PART V

PROCESSING AND INTERROGATION

The Procedure, Awaiting Redefectors upon their Arrival in
Czechoslovakia.

There are basically three kinds of redefectors'
arrivals. One of them is by "plane straight to PRAGUE," Ws know
of several such eases of redefectors from the US and from
Norway. These redefectors have been provided with temporary travel
documents by the Czechoslovak diplomatic offices in the
respective countries.

The largest number of redefectors, also provided with
emergency, travel documents, mostly by the Czechoslovak Military
Mission in BERLIN, (as far as West Germany is concerned,) cross
the frontier at the usual crossing points. These are: SGHIRNDING
- CHEB, WAIDHAUS - ROZVADOV, the two in Bohemia and BRECLAV or
MIKULOV in Moravia.

(To quote a letter sent in November 1955 by
Czechoslovak Military Mission to a refugee in BERLIN: "Please give us
an approximate date of your return and the route you will take
i.e. which of the following control points you intend to pass:
CHEB, MIKULOV, BEGIN or PRAGUE-RUZYNE." See MUNICH RFE Item No.
2759/56.)

The third group comprises those who return without
any travel documents whatever. The last group does not even have
is previous authorization of the Czechoslovak authorities. They
come simply to the Border Guard stations on the Czechoslovak -
-German or Austrian border and report there.

A former Border Guard officer told us the regulations
governing the behavior of the personnel in such cases: One of the
members of a patrol, meeting such a redefector, points his rifle
or LMG at him and the second handcuffs him and blindfolds him. Then
he takes him to the Coy H.Q. where he contacts the intelligence
officer and reports that he has "perishable goods." The apprehended
redefector is delivered to a regional representative of the Ministry
of the Interior at least four hours after he arrived. The redefectors
are officially called "amnestees," unofficially they are referred
to, at least by the Border Guards, as "beggars." (MUNICH RFE Item
Nos. 7562/55 of June-July and 8963/55 the latter's subsource is
another BG soldier who describes the handling of redefectors
similarly.)

[page 23]

This rather rough handling seems to be the fate of
redefectors returning without the previous assent of the
Czechoslovak authorities.

Subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No. 4179/56, a
re-redefector whose reliability has to be doubted, informs us that
redefectors in possession of an authorization return from the
Western countries via CHEB, from BERLIN via HRENSKO and from
Austria via BRECLAV. They are to report to the Border Guard unit
on duty, are not to be searched and are to be handed over without
any delay to the next StB (security police, i.e. the next executive
organ of the regional organization of the Ministry of the Interior.)
The police transports them then to the redefectors1 center.

The recent re-redefector KUDRFALEC returned to the
CSR in summer 1955 with an emergency travel document from PARIS.
He was expected and met by two BG members on the border. They fed
him and took all his documents away. They went so far as to
relieve him of purely personal papers kept by him as souvenirs,
private letters and all the French money in his possession. His
baggage was also subjected to a very intensive search. Then he
was transported to the StB offices in KARLOVY VARY and from there
was sent to the redefectors' center in SADSKA. (MUNICH RFE Item
No. 6745/56.)

This piece of information, which mentions the thorough
search and the confiscation of all papers, seems more likely than
the former report.

MUNICH RFE Item No. 867/56 quotes a letter to friends
in Germany written by redefector Jan GORDIAN who went to
Czechoslovakia in July 1955. He says there that "he was for some time
in KARLOVY VARY" and that then he went to PRAGUE. Subsource of
MUNICH RPE Item No. 8325/55 asserts that all redefectors were
kept for from two to four days in a hotel in KARLOVY VARY and
that "they were then removed for a destination unknown." This
was to be the case till July 1955. As of August 1955 they were
no longer accommodated at that hotel. It looks as if the first
interrogations of the redefectors were held at KARLOVY VARY at
that period, during which time KARLOVY VARY housed a number of .
espionage centers.

From the border or from the regional office of the
Ministry of the Interior (in the case of Moravia BRNO) the
redefectors were (probably until mid-1956) transported to the re-

[page 24]

defectors' center at SADSKA. This township is some 30 miles to
the east of PRAGUE in the direction of PODEBRADY. The buildings
in which the Center is housed is probably that of the former
regional nursing home (telephone directory 1955).

The exact location of the Center remained unknown
here for a long time, although we knew of its existence.

MUNICH RFE Item No. 5328/55 (of June 20) reports
the receipt of a letter written to NUERNBERG by a redefector,
where he says that he is in some "center" where he met with
others and that "he will leave it probably within a week."
MUNICH RFE Item No. 6245/55 (of early July) brings another letter
by another redefector. This one says that he is "in some sort
of a sanatorium and (that he) will leave it in some eight to four
teen days, Everybody returning from abroad comes here..."

A letter by redefector Frantisek SVOBODA written to
Camp VALKA in September 1955 says: "I am at present in a
quarantine. Every redefector has to stay there for ten to fourteen
days. Everything is just like in a hospital. The food is
excellent and plenty of it. There is a bottle of beer to go with lunch
and we get twenty cigarettes a day. Once through here, you go to
the Committee for Redefectors..." (MUNICH RPE Item Nos. 8756 and
8840/55.)

Redefector Vratislav PFEIFER writes that "FRIEBER
left the quanrantine station after he had spent a fortnight there
and that he gained seven pounds while there. The redefectors are
very well taken care of and they are treated as if they were in
a first-class hospital. The food is excellent and there is a
daily ration of beer and twenty cigarettes. There is a TV set in
the building and movies are projected." (MUNICH RFE Item No.
9595/55.)

Then the subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No. 41/56, a
former German prisoner of war, repatriated to West Germany gave
us the location: "A Center for Redefectors has been established
at SADSKA near NYMBURK on June 1 1955. The camp is surrounded
by barbed wire. The redefectors assembled there wear striped
prisoner's dress and are under permanent guard."

Four persons who passed through this redefectors'
center in SADSKA escaped West in the first seven months of 1956.

[page 25]

(Consult, please, Part VIII of this report -- "Re-redefectors.")

Information made available by them enables us to
furnish the following description of the Center and the routine:

(For details viz SALZBURG RFE Item Nos. 2693, 2694,
4152, 8047/56, MUNICH RFE Item Nos. 2930, 4179, 6745, 6749/56,
and July 1956 background report, available at the CS. Evaluation
Desk.)

The Center was called The Sanatorium by the
population of the area who did not know, or rather, was not supposed
to know that it housed redefectors. It consisted of two buildings
of two and three floors respectively. The first provided the
redefectors' sleeping quarters -- two to four persons to a room --
the other housed the interrogators1 office space, provided
living quarters for the permanent personnel, contained the guard
room, the dispensary and the kitchen. It housed also the hall
with a TV set and a reading room.

The entire area was fenced in with barbed wire and
guarded by the Inner Security troops. (These are specially
selected reliable members of the police force and their usual duty
is that of guarding important industrial objects and offices.)
The guard consisted of twelve troopers who were changed weekly.
Two sentries were on duty. One was posted at the main gate and
the second paced the area.

The redefector arriving in the Center was supposedly
told, officially, that he was brought there because of reasons
of health. His clothes as well as the rest of his effects were
taken away from him and he was issued striped light blue pajamas,
bath robe and leather house shoes. (Once cleared, the redefector
is given back all his possessions, exception made of his foreign
documents and photographs of persons still abroad.) The pajamas
and the robe constituted the redefector's only clothing during
his stay in the Center. The time of the stay varies with the
importance of information he may furnish -- on the average it
was some ten to fifteen days.

The redefector passed a medical inspection by a
daily visiting physician (a nurse, however, was on permanent duty
in the Center) and serious cases of illness were referred to the
regional hospital at NYMBURK. (Such a patient has to sign an
affidavit to the effect that he would not talk about himself to

[page 26]

the other hospital inmates or to the medical personnel.)

The daily routine started between 0630 hours and
ended at 2000 hours. All the re-redefectors praised the food
served, both as to the quality and quantity. Two of them
asserted that only ten cigarettes per diem each were issued and
not twenty as some of the letters to friends in the West said.
The working period was taken up by interrogation. When not
interrogated, the redefector was free to pass his time in the
garden, watching the television or in the reading room.

Each case was worked on by an individual agent who
arrived from PRAGUE in the morning and returned there in the
evening.

The redefector had to answer questions pertaining
to his life story, describe his escape West and give the names
of persons who helped him to escape. He was thoroughly
interrogated about his activities in the West, had to describe
exactly (eventually even make a sketch or draw a map) of his place
of employment and furnish complete information about the
enterprise or organization for which he had worked. Former members
of the Labor Service Companies had to draw maps of the US stores
they guarded and to describe the merchandise stored there. Former
French Foreign Legionaries were asked about French fortifications
and details about arms and training. The next task of the
redefector was to describe all his relatives and friends and
acquaintances. He had to state their characteristics, their hobbies,
preferences and faults.

A special part of the interrogation was reserved
for RFE and its employees. The redefector was asked whether
he collaborated with RFE and on what occasions. That same
attention was paid to Western intelligence organizations and
membership in them. Pictures of persons to be identified were
presented to each of them.

In exceptional cases, night interrogation was
employed.

One of the re-redefectors stated that he was told
while signing his statements: "If you witheld something, you
won't remain at liberty for long." Such redefectors in whose
statements discrepancies were found or who have been found out
to lie go, as we were told, to jail. Our subsources claim to
know of such cases, although they are unable to furnish us with
names.

[page 27]

A redefector at SADSKA was allowed to write letters;
they had, however, to "be handed over to his particular
investigator who took care of their mailing. The letters had to be
open.

Twice a week, so we were told, screened redefectors
were transported to the Committee for Redefectors in PRAGUE by
a special bus. Before release from SADSKA, the redefectors had
to sign an affidavit that they would not mention that center
to anybody, including the members of their own family and even
the regular police. Divulging information of the existence of
the center, they were told, would "be considered dissemination
of enemy propaganda. It was said that the redefectors left
SADSKA with a certain feeling of elation. The atmosphere there
was rather unsavoury -- some of the redefectors were recruited
for informing on the new acquintances they meet right there,
the source of MUNICH RFE Item Ho. 6745/56 states.

Hynek RICHTER, who returned to Czechoslovakia together
with his parents on April 28 1956 and re-redefected to Austria
in September 1956 declared that he and his parents were
processed, together with some twenty other persons, mostly
members of redefecting families, in a villa in PRAGUE-PAMRAC.
The treatment of the redefectors, the screening and the security
precautions are identical with those of SADSKA. (SALZBURG RFE
Item No.9713/56 and MUNICH REE Item No.9889/56.)

The first re-redefector arrived in the West in
February 1956. Information concerning SADSKA became public in
March and April. Details concerning treatment of redefectors
were also broadcast by RFE on a few occasions. It seems that
this forced the regime to establish new processing centers
in order to keep the processing secret.

Re-redefectors assert that special cases, like e.g.
"Dr. Lev SYCHRAVA or Marie DVORAKOVA did not pass through the
Center. MUNICH RFE Item No.4179/56 subsource stated, however,
that StB agents formerly active abroad go through SADSKA and
were subjected to the same screening procedure.

The Committee for Redefectors' office (see Part IV)
instructed the redefectors how to deal with the population and
how to answer possible questions. They were issued a
white temporary document. This served as an identity card and

[page 28]

bore a photograph taken already in SADSKA (or another center.)
The labor department of the Committee informed the redefector
about employment possibilities. (For more details the reader
should consult Part VI of this report.) Then he was usually
presented to journalists assembled in a special room.

Almost every redefector was sent, if possible to his
last place of residence. There he was given a blue identity
card by the local police. (That, according to the Committee
Secretary VALTR was issued in accordance with the law No.61 of
1953. See "Voice of Homeland" of September 4 1956. The blue
identity card is issued to all persons who do not have all the
documents necessary for the issue of a normal red identity
card.) The blue identity card, clearly marked, as the
re-redefectors inform us, as belonging to a redefector was exchanged
after six months to a year for a red one, again with an
unconspicuous,] however, unfailing note from which every policeman
was able to identify the bearer as a redefector.

One of the re-redefectors, subsource of SALZBURG RFE
Item No.4152/56, maintained that those redefectors who had had
their trip to Czechoslovakia financed or had received regime
financial assistance have to sign an I.O.U. payable at terms of
at least Kcs. 150.- a month. (Quotation from a letter by CS
Military Mission to BERLIN to a redefector-to-be: "We can grant
you a loan for your travel expenses if you promise to repay it
in Kcs in Czechoslovakia." See MUNICH RFE Item No. 2759/56.)

The redefector received a free railway ticket to his
place of destination and 50 Kcs and so equipped he returned to
the normal Czechoslovak daily life.

PART VI

JOB OPPORTUNITIES: CONCENSUS OF THE POPULATION'S OPINION
CONCERNING THEM

The prominent Communist journalist Vojtech DOLEJSI,
among whose functions is that of the Chairman of the
Czechoslovak Journalists' Union, wrote in an article in the
Czechoslovak Communist Party official paper "Rude Pravo," of June 22
1955 that "whoever will return home would be given a job in
keeping with his abilities and training."

[page 29]

The chairman of the Committee for Redefectors,
KLINGER, wrote in "Voice of Homeland" of November 15 1955 that
"over half of the returnees work at their old trades, about
a third turned industry or agriculture and the rest chose new
trades offered by our socialist order." One of the last pieces of
information furnished by the Committee says that they also
help to settle the border areas. (This relates to the
seven-member family of Vladislav HASJAK -- see REE Monit. of Sept.
30 56.)

The procedure of work assignment has been described
in "Voice of Homeland" of September 6 1955 as follows: "Vaclav
MRAZ of the Central National Committee of PRAGUE will furnish
the redefector a placement card to his place of employment.
It is addressed to the District National Committee of the
redefector's future domicile. There the redefector will
report to the local labor exchange. The practice shows that
redefectors prefer independent assignment (i.e. free choice
of employment - Ed. note) to organized assignment (i.e.
assignment to the mines or agriculture-Ed. note.) There were
even cases where redefectors wanted to work in the mines but
were not allowed to because of their health." This was the
case of e.g. RYNES and PRINZ, Voice of Homeland said.

Re-redefector KUDREALEC tells us that the official
in charge of work assignment divided the prospective jobs into
groups in accordance with earnings: 1) Mines, 2) Agriculture,
3) Industry, 4) Communal Enterprises.

He asserts that most of the redefectors decided
on the mines. (MUNICH REE Item No.6745/56.) VoH reports on
June 28 1956 that "some of the returnees" decided to work in
the KLADNO mines.

One of the invitation letters of the redefector
Vaclav MISEK, addressed to camp VAIKA says: "Many of us
volunteered for the compensation brigades. I, for instance,
went to KLADNO, where I met with many of the boys." (MUNICH
REE Item No.868/56.) KIADNO, or rather the region surrounding
it, is the coal area closest to PRAGUE. MISEK's statement is
probably true. MUNICH REE Item No.873/56 quotes a letter by
redefector Josef BARTON to the effect that he is going to
work at KLADNO. We gathered from "Voice of Homeland" that the
following redefectors are employed there: HOZNOUHEK, SMORANC,
KUCERA and further e.g. HVEZM.

[page 30]

Antonin SYKORA, a redefector against Ms will
(viz Part VIII.) and a miner by profession, asserts that
after the screening at SADSKA he signed a contract for
three years at KLADNO. There he lived with about one hundred
other redefectors in barracks under constant surveillance.

Some redefectors work in the OSTRAVA mines, e.g.
ZAHRADNIK, CADA, BARTOLSIC, HAJEK and MICKAL, others in the
iron ore mines in Slovakia (SIROTNAK,) still others in the
MOST lignite mines (GREZDO) or at SOKOLOV (Antonin KRATOCHWIL.)
By the looks of it they are all in the "compensation" brigades.

The secretary of the Committee for Redefectors,
Vaclav VALTR wrote in "Voice of Homeland" of February 21
1956: "The enemies and slanderers asserted that redefectors
will be put into the JACHYMOV mines and similar... As it is,
there is no shortage of labor at JACHYMOV." There VALTR was
not entirely right. "Svobodne Slovo" of July 24 1956 says that
the needs (of manpower) of the JACHYMOV mines still remain a
statewide problem. The Minister of Manpower, Josef TESLA said
on the occasion of a meeting with the Chairman of the Regional
National Committees that JACHYMOV is in acute need of additional
labor. (August 9 1956.)

This situation is further confined by a series
of official sources. We also know that redefectors are employed
ere. One of them, Jan RTCZNICEK, who came back from Australia,
wrote his acquaintances that he had lots of work arranging his
private matters and that, once he had settled them, he
volunteered for a brigade. He works at OSTROV near LARLOVY VARY.
(MUNICH RFE Item No. 144/56.) We have "been informed about another
redefector in the JACIPMOY mines. This is KOPIC, who was
supposedly transferred to JACHYMOV after he missed two shifts
while working as a second driver with the Czechoslovak Automobile
Transport. (MUNICH RFE Item No.8912/56.) It seems that he is
not a prisoner but a "volunteer."

Jan MARTIN, an editor, wrote in "Voice of Homeland"
of August 9 1955 about the redefector from Germany Frantisek
MACHAC. MACHAC walked with him around PRAGUE and said that he
was leaving for PARDUBICE to work as a mechanic there. The
next installment of the story was furnished by "Passauer Neue
Presse" of June 12 1956 and the July 1956 background reports
MACHAC wanted to work as a radio mechanic in PRAGUE but was
told at the Committee that that was impossible, that all the

[page 31]

jobs were taken. He was, however, given a labor placement
card with the PARDUBICE Tesla factory. There he was told that
there were no vacancies. This happened on August 3 1955, i.e.
before the mentioned article was published. He wad given a
choice between a three-year contract in agriculture or one
year in the mines. MACHAC decided for the mines and was sent
to the East Bohemian Coalmines at TRUTNOV. There he met with
other redefectors, among them PETRMICHL. On June 4 1956 he
escaped to Germany for the second time. He asserts that "all the
promises of free life are false and that redefectors are
permanently suspected and watched."

We do not intend, and since we do not have enough
material on hand, are not able to assert that most of the
redefectors are employed in mining. Information contained in
both the official and our own sources tends, however, to indicate
that the free choice of employment as pretended by the Committee
for Redefectors stops where the jurisdiction of the local
assigned labor exchange begins. This cannot be construed as a
discrimination against redefectors. The average Czechoslovak
citizen has no freedom in his choice of employment either.

There are hundreds of redefectors. We are convinced
that a certain percentage of them are favored by the regime for
propaganda reasons if for no other, and that their working
conditions and standard of living are good. Among these exceptions
we could include e.g. Karel SCHNEIDER [see also Part VII,] the
former LSCo Lieutenant Zdenek NEJDL, Marie DVORAKOVA, Josef
HRDLICKA and some others.

Some of the redefectors are in the Army, so e.g.
Leopold NEDOMA and Bruno FOLTA, Jaroslav RAJSIGL, former French
Foreign Legionnaire, was, according to his own letter of November
10 1955, permitted to join the Army and was promised the rank
of lieutenant within at least a year. [MUNICH RFE Item No. 143/56
ans Special Report No. 76/55.]

We feel justified on the whole to say that KLINGER's
a/m assertion that "more than half of the redefectors work at
their former trades" is false. We believe -- to quote him
verbatim that "most of them decided to chose new trades to which
the socialist order will open them the way." Mining to all
appearances, is the topmost of those newly-opened trades.

As to the morale and mood of the redefectors we
mentioned in Part V of this report that re-redefectors report
an atmosphere of mutual distrust and suspicion in the SADSKA
Center. "Everybody was afraid to talk in front of everybody
else -- we all knew there were stool-pidgeons among us."
[SALZBURG RFE Item No. 8047/56.] Subsource of the latter report
says: "As soon as my fellow workers found out that I was a
redefector, they became pointedly cold. Many of them avoided my
presence."

[page 32]

Redefector Alois LUKUVKA says in VIENNA RFE Item
No. 4632/56: "No one will stop with a redefector and talk to
him."

KUDRFALEC, the re-redefector tells us that those
of his acquaintances who knew that he returned from abroad
thought that he was working for the StB. Wherever he
appeared conversation came to an end. People were afraid to talk
in front of him [MUNICH Item No. 6745/56]

Redefector Oldrich SCHMIDT suggests in his letter
of August 1955 that his fellow workers, especially the older
ones, "look at him askance."

This particular aspect is further illustrated by
Special Report No. 176/55 -- "Redefector Disappointed by His
Reception" and Special Report No. 235 -- "Disillusioned
Redefectors."

PARIS RFE Item No 10267/55 quotes a letter by a
redefector in which he asks for old clothes, and which he
signs "one who did a silly thing."

One of the re-redefectors, subsource of MUNICH RFE
Item No. 2930/56, describes the mood of the returnees as
follows: "They are discontent and could they, they would return
to the West. They do not accuse RFE, quite to the contrary. The
declarations of the former RFE employee DVORAKOYA was strongly
criticized among the refugees." NEDOMOVA closes her letter to
her friends in Germany [MUNICH RFE Item No. 1291/56] by "I am
longing for you and would like to come to visit you." The
redefectors suffer from more than eventual loneliness and longing,
Vladimir KOVANDA wrote in an article "A Year of Life at Home"
in "Voice of Homeland91 of August 21 1956: "What hurt me much
was that people did not want to believe that I told them and
posed that I was telling them what I was supposed to say."

It will surely be interesting to quote some sources
informing us of the attitude of the population toward the
redefectors.

A female visitor to PRAGUE [July 1955] says: "No
one is ready to find a single excuse for the redefectors.
Everybody condemns them." [MUNICH RFE Item No. 6857/550]

"Nobody believed that the redefectors will remain
free for long. It was supposed and accepted that as soon as
the Communist propaganda made due use of them, they'd be
put to forced labor." [MUNICH RFE Item No. 6859/55.]

A Slovak refugee, subsource of MUNICH RFE Item
No. 8145/55, says that people generally believe that the
redefectors are good-for-nothing, crooks and in general work-shy...

[page 33]

An unpleasant surprise is, according to the general opinion,
in store for them at their place of work.

A letter mailed from PRAGUE in September 1955 is
quoted in MUNICH RFE Item No. 8516/55: "These redefectors put
on much too important airs altogether and when they have no
story to tell, they'll invent one... It is quite possible
that they'll be sorry that they came back."

Subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No 1880/56 met with a
redefector from Brazil [NU] in the train. The redefector was
showering abuse on the West. One of the people in the carriage
asked him about prices and wages in South America and found by
comparison that the working population of Brazil was better off
than that of Czechoslovakia. Our subsource believes that the
people do not believe the redefectors' tales and consider them
taught propaganda. He says further that the former RFE employee
DVORAKOVA "made by her declaration more publicity for the RFE
Information Section than she helped the regime."

A 17-year-old refugee told us that redefector "Zdenek
FRANTA talked unfavorably about the exile in the village of
BOHUTICE. His listeners did not believe him and thought that
should all be as black as he painted it, he would have come
back just as he had escaped, i.e. as a tramp, and pointed
out his good clothes and the gold watch he brought back."
[SALZBURG RFE Item No. 2691/56.]

Subsource of WELS RFE Item No. 47/56 tells us about
redefector Rudolf KREMEN who had already returned to
Czechoslovakia on June 22 1955. Subsource met KREMEN In his native village
PLEVNIK in Slovakia, where the entire KREMEN family has the
reputation of being extremely lazy people. He believes the general
rumor that KREMEN is working for the Security Police.

MUNICH RFE Item No, 5453/56 lists the opinion that only
those who went abroad for the sake of adventure are returning,
since a person who escaped because of political reasons would
surely not return.

A refugee woman declared to the reporter of MUNICH
RFE Item No. 8729/56 in April 1956 that "no one believed the
redefectors, say what they may, and that they exert no influence
whatever."

We agree that the influence of the propaganda made
by the redefectors was nil in respect to the majority of the
population; however, some groups were influenced. We sould like
to draw the readers' attention to the statement of the subsource
of ROME RFE Item No. 9311/56 maintaining that the declaration
made by redefectors were "a slap in the face of the regime
opponents."

[page 34]

The evaluation of this aspect of redefection is
beyond the scope of this report and we believe that we could
come to the close of this chapter. While assessing the population's
opinion of redefectors and their chances back home, we believe
we should endeavour to shed some light on the regime's opinion
of some of them. To explain: It seems that it was felt in
Czechoslovakia that some of the redefectors should be punished
for reasons both known and unknown here. And that regardless
of the amnesty.

In Part V of this report we mentioned that the
redefectors have been warned during the screening that false
pretentious and/or uncomplete statements might re stilt in
imprisonment. Re-redefector Antonin SYKORA who passed the
SADSKA screening asserts to know of two cases where redefectors
have been arrested and subsequently disappeared. [MUNICH RFE
Item No. 2930/56.] Some other reports, mostly not yet confirmed,
speak also of arrested redefectors. WELS EWE Item No. 6494/55
asserts that PAVLOVSKY was arrested upon his redefection.
WELS RFE Item No. 9146/55 reported that the former Secret
Police-man, Stefan GRUJBAN and one Emil ERISTALA were sentenced
to eight years.

Vaclav OLSJSEK redefected in June 1955 and was
MUNICH RFE Item No. 671/56 subsource the same month
in the forced labor camp BYTIZ as a prisoner.

A letter to Germany, reported in MUNICH RFE Item
No. 2448/56, says: Jiri PALACKY can't write you -- he is the
month in jail." The letter had been mailed on January
17 1956.

Viktor KADERKA returned on June 1955 and in July
1955 was supposedly already in JACHYMOV with a sentence of
eight years. [MUNICH RFE Item No. 9861/55.]

Subsource of SALZBURG WE Item No. 9308/56 tells the
story of a man he met while held for interrogation. The former
German soldier of Slovak nationality Anton KOCUR escaped to
Germany in 1945 because he was afraid that he would be prosecuted
for treason on account of his service in an enemy Array. He
redefected in 1955 and was actually sentenced to three years
as he feared. He is, supposedly, in JACHYMOV.

Official sources reported, up to now, the sentence
of only one redefector. It is the case of Miroslav SVOBODA
who redefected from VIENNA, where -- as a physiciam -- he was
unable to make a living. ["Voice of Homeland" No. 20/55.]
"Svobodne Slovo" of June 24 1956 reported that he only pretended
to be a doctor of medicine. [This is borne out by our background
story. SVOBODA was sentenced already in Germany.] He was accused
of various frauds, found guilty and duly sentenced to three and
a half years.

[page 35]

SVOBODA could perhaps serve as an example of
those redefectors who occupy a place in the public opinion and
are, as said in MUNICH RFE Item No, 6242/55,"...
unfortunate wrecks of dubious character and to "be pitied."
It is a question whether SVOBODA merits pity,

This chapter concerning the population's opinion
of redefectors should include the fact that the domestic
population warned potential returnees to think twice. The
mother of the refugee living in Germany wrote her son already
on June 6 1956: "I would not advise anybody to return. The
only work to be had here is in mines and in agriculture."
[MUNICH RFE Item No. 4700/55.] A former political prisoner
released under an amnesty wrote a friend in Camp VALKA:
"Many people are returning home. So should you wish to come
too, you could obtain work in JACHYMOV or PRIBRAM. [Ed.note
-- uranium areas.] [Quoted in MUNICH RFE Item No. 872/56.]

A letter in similar vein is quoted by MUNICH
RFE Item No 8838/55: "The amnesty covers you, I am certain, in
full. As to work, however, it is another story. I do not know
of a single returnee who'd work at his trade. So, after all,
it might be better if you remained where you are..."

PARIS RFE Item No. 4001/56 mentions the case of
a certain Czechoslovak subject who left Czechoslovakia prior
to the Communist coup d'etat who received a letter containing
the following passage: "Your prospects for return are black.
It is said that 15 years are in store for you here." [Ed.note
i.e. 15 years of prison.]

Subsource of VIENNA RFE Item No 7338/56, a
Czechoslovak resident who received permission to visit her relatives
in Austria was instructed by friends at home to write to their
nephew, a refugee living now in Australia, and to tell him not
to believe the redefection campaign and not to return because
conditions are not ripe yet. -- Decidedly a shrewd assessment.

x x x
[page 36]

PART VII

CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME REDEFECTORS
AN ESTIMATE OF THEIR NUMBER

"As I was able to find out at SADSKA," a
re-redefactor says in MUNICH RFE Item No. 6898/56, "the core of
redefectors is formed most of all "by young people who were
finished abroad because of criminal offences and who were
thus excluded from emigration. The next category was that of
adventurers who did not know why they escaped in the first
lace and the rest were the aged and the sick. Some of
he redefectors, such as I, returned from sheer stupidity."

The above quoted re-redefector served for a
considerable time in the French Foreign Legion and had been
honor discharged as a result of a grave wound sustained in
battle. After his discharge he worked in PARIS. We heard from
him that he received mail from home there, heard about the
amnesty and became obsessed with homesickness. He simply had
to see his old haunts, his parents and his childhood friends.

We feel inclined to believe that the percentage
of similar cases, people who became victims of nostalgia
and believed that the tendency of Czechoslovakia evolution is
toward a decent democratic life, is considerable. That seems
to be especially the case of older redefectors. Could the
return of the 87 years old Josef PRIWITZER be explained in other
terms? [Sea MUNICH HIE Item No. 7000/56.]

Scrutinizing the list of the redefectors, we find
that a great many of them were extremely young at the time
of their defection, some of them actually children. Jiri SIKORA
left for Germany with his mother in 1945 -- he was 14 at the
time. The mother died in 1949, the boy made a precarious living
as a laborer and redefected in the summer of 1955. ["Rude
Pravo" September 21 1955.] Jan ANDREV, Josef STANICEK,
Ladislav MIKLAS, Herbert HYNEK and Buhoslav DOUBEK were 15
at the time of their escape West. Ludek ZAHRADKA was just
under 16 when he became scared of a bad school report and
escaped to Germany. Josef STAUBER, Bartolomej SABATKA and Jiri
SEDLACEK were 16 at the time of their escape and Karel JANIK
and Jaroslav KOPIC were 17.

L'udovit SAIK came to Germany with his mother when
he was 12. Later on he found himself in France where he joined
the Foreign Legion in 1945. In 1955 he returned to Czechoslovakia
with the group of ex-Foreign Legionnaries reported in "Voice
of Homeland" of July 5 1955.

Pavel HANCCIN, born in 1932 crossed the German
border in 1947 supposedly as a "result of enemy propaganda for
extolling better pay in the West and because of desire for
adventure." [VoH, March 20 1956.]

[page 37]

The next group consists of persons of whom even
"Voice of Homeland" is forced to say that they "are not refugees
in the true sense of the word." [VoH, March 6 and April 3
1956.] For example Tadeusz NOVAK was captured in Prance
as a German soldier, came to POW camp in England and remained
in that country even after his release. A similar label was
attached by VoH to Anton and Herbert SCHWARZ -- that latter
was an ethnic German who served with the Czechoslovak Army
under British High Command and remained after the war in
Britain.

Johan SCHICK, an ethnic German returned to
Czechoslovakia in 1955 having left the country in 1947.

Jan KOHOUT, Josef JEREMIAS and Alois KOPECKY made
acquaintance with German girls during the war and joined
them in 1945. Now they have returned to Czechoslovakia. They
could be hardly described as "persons who had left the republic's
territory under the influence of enemy propaganda" as specified
in Article VII of the Amnesty of May 9 1955.

Fratisek KUCERA is a Czech who served in the German
Army and was subsequently arrested in 1945. He escaped in
July 1947. He redefected, or rather returned since he never
defected in the first place, in 1955. [VoH, September 20 1955.]

Frantisek MIKES, another Czech who joined the
German Army during the war escaped in 1953 and was supposedly
granted German citizenship in 1955, returned to
Czechoslovakia in early 1956. [Special report No. 198 and Prace of
February 15 1956.]

Official sources quality the escape West of some
redefectors as non-political:

Ernest SOLCANSKY went abroad in August 1951 because
of "family troubles." [VoH, December 6 1955]. In 1951 Juraj
NOVOTNY left his wife and two children -- VoH, December 13 1955.
Frantisek SKLADANY [VoH, January 17 1956] went abroad to
"escape the responsibilities toward his family." Karel RAIS
and Frantisek WOJACZEK left "in search of adventure." [VoH,
January 17 1956.] SVIHLIK [fnu] and Josef PELIKAN were refugees
from justice, they were sentenced to short imprisonment.
[VoH April 3 1956 and June 22 1955.] The same applies to
Vincenc KARDA who escaped in March 1955 in order to cheat on
the 10 months he was sentenced to and who returned
in June the same year. A higly amusing reason for escape is
given by Karel SCHNEIDER who escaped in 1949 "under the influense
of promises made by the traitors in RFE" [sic.] SCHNEIDER
was sentenced to jail in Germany and was thus unable to emigrate.
He wrote his friends in Camp VALKA: "I had no political reasons to
escape and am returning home a convinced Communist." [MUNICH
RFE Item Nos 4561 and 4813/55.]

[page 38]

A noticeable proportion of redefectors consists
of those who were not accepted as bona fida? political
refugees by the "Bundesdienststelle für Anerkennung
Ausländischer Flüchtlinge" [Federal Commission for Acceptance
of Alien Refugees.] We shall name at least some of them:
Vojtech TAKAC, Frantisek STETINA, Antonin ZOBIN, Antonin
NOVAK and Josef GOROL among others. A redefector wrote to
a friend of his still in Camp VALKA: "I could understand that
you do not want to return; after all, you are married and have
a job. Bat I cannot see why the inelligible ones stay there."
[MUNICH RFE Item No. 2128/56.]

The former members of the French Foreign Legion
captured in Vietnam and repatriated thence are also considered
redefectors by the PRAGUE authorities, A press conference was held
as June 30 1955 with 12 such "redefectors." "Voice of
Home and" of July 5 1955 reported: "These returnees are former
soldiers of the French Foreign Legion. As such they were sent
to action in Vietnam. There they saw the situation in its
proper perspective and they changed sides. Subsequently most
of them took part in the fight on the side of the people of
Vietnam and later in the peaceful development of the country.
After the amnesty they asked to be repatriated to
Czechoslovakia."

The Legionnaires made their trip through Vietnam
on foot, as we learned from a letter by redefector NEDOMDVA
(MUNICH RFE Item No. 5407/55;) then they were sent through
Russia to Czechoslovakia. They were at SADSKA already on June
12 1955. Apparently, the mentioned press conference was meant
Inject some life into Action Return.

One of the 12 Legionnaries was, for example,
Miroslav KILLBERGER who fought for five years on the HO-CHI-MINH
side. (In his article in "Voice of Homeland" of October 4 1955
he said that some 12 Hungarian former Foreign Legionnaries
returned together with his group.) Another member of this group
is Hubert KUDELKA who joined the Legion straight from the
Germ Army. Others are Stefan PASTIERIK who crossed the border
"because he was drunk" (in 1945) and the already mentioned
L'udovit SAIK.

A separate group of about thirty persons consists
of Czechoslovak subjects repatriated to Czechoslovakia from
various prisons in West Germany. Thus Adolf KAISINGER,
sentenced because of theft to a term of eight months, applied for
repatriation while in the NUERNBERG jail and was sent to
Czechoslovakia. (MUNICH RFE Item No. 150/56.) Josef DOKSANSKY was
returned (in February 1956) to Czechoslovakia after he spent

[page 39]

five years in a German jail. (MUNICH RFE Item No. 6550/56.)
MUNICH RFE Item Nos. 4373 and 4766/55 reported that Czechs and
Slovaks imprisoned in BRUCHSAL asked to be repatriated to
Czechoslovakia. The same concerns three Czechoslovak nationals in
the NUERNBERG prison and fifteen in BAMBERG Jail. The
repatriation of the prisoners was arranged by mediation between the West
German and Czechoslovak Red Cross. It was decided that the
prisoners will be repatriated at the end of August or the beginning
of October 1956. (Details are given in HAMBURG RFE Item No.
8191/56.)

We believe it necessary to separate from the rest a group best
termed as "odd" people. The subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No.
3151/56 gave vent to his belief that "people who were sent to the
West to recruit redefectors are to be found among the returnees."
We agree with him. Jaromir JASEK seems to be one of them. He
was arrested in BAYRISCH EISENSTEIN on June 26 1953 with false
German papers on his person. JASEK, who admitted that he was
a CC Secret police agent, was jailed for some time and was then
sent to Camp VALKA in the spring of 1954. There, according to
our reporter, he spread propaganda for the regime. He returned
to Czechoslovakia on June 23 1955. (MUNICH RFE Item No.
6493/55.) It seems that Miroslav BORECKY and his "wife," whose
real name is Nadezda POLISENSKA, (and who apparently is not his
wife) belong to the same group. (SALZBURG RFE Item No. 2129/56
and Radio PRAGUE February 3 1956.) Ladislav BEDNAR passed
through various camps after his arrival in 1949. As early as
195 3 he blackmailed the pertinent agencies into providing him
with livelihood be declaring that if they would not support him
he would work for the Communists. During the period between
August 1952 and July 1955 he was given 6,481 Austrian Sch. by
the Czechoslovak Relief Association and more than 6,500 Sch. by
USEP. (SALZBURG RPE Item No. 8614/55.)

[page 40]

He was actively aiding the Return Home propaganda
and actually redefected. Dalibor PARA who used the alias of
Frantisek BARAT for six years (MUNICH RFE Item No. 8413/55)
and Vlastimil KUMBAR, alias Petr HORA (MUNICH RFE Item Nos.
7605 and 7932/55) belong to the same category.

We think it is necessary to call attention to the
redefection case (still UNCONFIRMED) of Jaroslav SAFARIK. MUNICH
RFE Item No. 10394/56 gives his story as follows: He is a
Czech refugee, who had obtained German citizenship; he
traveled to the CSR in September 1956 with his German wife and two
children in order to visit his mother living near PRAGUE. He
possessed a West German passport and was granted a visitor's
visa by CS authorities. The "Voice of Homeland" of October 2
1956 reported all of them as redefectors.

Still not quite clear are the reasons for the
redefection of Jiri KALAS and Marie DVORAKOVA. The latter lived abroad
from 1940 and declared herself a political refugee in 1949.
Both of them were RFE employees.

Going through the life stories of redefectors that
are available here, we ascertain, and regime sources bear us
out, that most of them did not escape West because of political
reasons. We believe we have quoted enough cases to that effect.
This being the case, it is readily understood that they
redefected fairly easily and that they were quite amenable to the Return
Home drive's arguments and Communist promises. Many of the
refugees have also been adversely influenced by the complicated
clearance and emigration procedure. This class of redefectors
returned mainly because they saw no other solution to their
problem and did not feel willing to rot in a refugee camp in
Germany till the end of their days. (For example Frantisek
HERMAN -- see WELS RFE Item No. 7673/55 an others.)

As to the number of redefectors:

Official Czechoslovak sources have not, so far, made
it public. At the official close of the amnesty VoH (November 22
1955) wrote: "It is impossible to give a full list of all those
who returned. The paper would then contain nothing else..."
And, so they say, they do not intend to facilitate the
compilation of an index of redefectors.

This is a very unconvincing argument. "Voice of
Homeland" has four pages and the printing of thousands of names
would present no problem and would have far greater propaganda
value than descriptions or pictures of factories. At the same
time, however, VoH repeats again and again life stories of some
of the redefectors. The story of Jirina ENISSOVA, Josef HOFMAN
and Jiri SEDLACEK and others have been repeated two or three
times. And also it does not stand to reason that names of
persons whose redefection is known anyhow, should be kept secret
so as to prevent the compilation of a file. There are not so
many people in exile -- a falsehood would be readily detected.

[page 41]

And the actual number of redefectors they could give would be,
by far, out of keeping with the propaganda made.

On December 6 1955 VoH commented on PEROUTKA's talk
(broadcast by REE) with: "They pretend that some 300 to 400
had returned." It omitted, however, to give a precise number.
A week later it talks about the "very many who have returned."
(December 13 1955.) VoH of March 3 1956: "More and more
people are returning home." April 17 1956: "Hundreds of persons
returned during the last three months." Commenting the first
anniversary of the amnesty, on May 15 1956, VoH talks about
the "never ceasing stream of returnees" and the "great number
of decent people."

A certain Communist journalist's estimate of some
8 to 10,000 redefectors is quoted in ROME RPE Item No. 2519/56.-
Radio PRAGUE reported on July 7 1956 that 55 persons returned
since the first part of June. The same source mentions on
September 1 1956 the "dozens of redefectors [??] who
returned in the second half of July and in August." VoH amplifies
this by asserting that "from the German Federal Republic alone,
more than fifty persons have returned during that period." The
commentator of Radio BRATISLAVA said that "a few hundred persons
returned during the three past months." (September 29 1956.)
In the above-mentioned ROME RPE report the reporter quoted, even
at the beginning of 195 6, the estimated number of redefectors as
somewhere between 8 and 10,000.

These approximations and or exaggerations alone cast
a shadow of suspicion on the entire matter.

Subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No 2930/56, a
re-redefector, estimates the number of redefectors at somewhere around
3,000. Most of them are, according to him "old people and former
French Foreign Legionaries."

This mention of the old people and the former
Legionaries tends to justify our assumption that not only post-'48
refugees but also persons who have lived abroad for a very long
time and wish to come home to die pass through the redefectors'
centers. Here we agains stress that, according to the latest
information available, the processing of returnees is not
limited merely to SADSKA. (Above we brought a re-redefector's
statement concerning a new redefectors' center at PRAGUE-Pankrac.
Another re-redefector, subsource of MUNICH RPE Item No 9889/56
states that the "SADSKA center had been liquidated at the end of
this (56) spring" and that a new screening establishment has been
set up at PRAG-UE-Dejvice. It is, he says, officially masked as a
Recreation Center of the Working Youth.)

It also looks as if the repatriation of POWs made in
Veitnam were put under the heading of redefection. Should all
such persons, i.e. old, pre-Communist emigrants and forcedly
repatriated POWs be considered redefectors, it would be possible

[page 42]

to arrive at the high regime-quoted numbers.
Most of the redefectors, except those that arrive by
plane, cross the West German-Czechoslovak frontier. Sources
familiar with the border conditions estimate the number of
persons returned to Czechoslovakia at around 500 and consider this
a none-too conservative estimate. ("Mittelbayerische Zeitung"
of April 15 1956.)

This estimate tallies closely with our own. Our list
of redefectors which was closed at the end of amnesty on
November 30 1956 contains 743 redefectors (96 children are not
included.) The names are taken from official sources, reports by
our information bureau and some trustworthy background reports.
The number of redefectors as defined by the wording of the
amnesty cannot, in our opinion, be much higher.

PART VIII
RE-REDEFECTORS

Up to now, we have come across the following cases of re-redefection:

The first re-redefector to appear was Antonin SYKORA.
It is somewhat difficult to decide whether he is a Czech or an
ethnic German. He lived in Germany ever since 1945 and kept up
a correspondence with his relatives in Czechoslovakia. In the
summer of 1955, he learned the news of the poor health of his
mother and illegally crossed the border to visit her. He was
caught and, after telling his story, was sent to SADSKA where
he was screened and then assigned to the KLADNO mines. He managed
to escape West again during a short leave of absence in February
1956. (For details concerning the case, the student is referred
to "Frankfurter Allgemeine" of March 1 1956, SALZBURG RFE Item
Nos. 2693, 2694, 4152/56 and MUNICH RFE Item No. 2930/56. SYKORA's
statements are considered reliable.)

VIENNA RFE Item No.3113/56 reported the presence of
Jiri JIRKAL in LINZ in February 1956. We have no information
concerning JIRKAL, save that he redefected in the fall of 1955.
The opinion that he was a Communist agent has been voiced.

Bohumil KUDRFALEC, a former French Foreign Legionnaire
re-redefected on April 30 1956. He returned to Czechoslovakia
from PARIS in the fall of 1956. (PARIS RFE Item No.8869/55.)
The information furnished by him concerning conditions in
Czechoslovakia and his reception there have an air of authenticity.
(See e.g. MUNICH RFS Item Nos. 6311 and 6745/56.)

Subsource of MUNICH RFE Item No.4179/56 is a refugee
who redefected in February 1956 and re-redefected soon after. He
maintains that he was screened at SADSKA and his description of
the camp corresponds to those previously obtained. However, the
conditions of his first escape impose a certain reserve.

[page 43]

"Passauer Neue Presse" of June 12 1956 and background
report of July 24 1956 available at the Czechoslovak Evaluation
Desk describe the adventures of Frantisek MACHAC who
re-redefected in May 195 6 having been in Czechoslovakia since July 1955.
His statements may be taken into account.

Arnost SIMOVIC, 23-years-old, redefected with his
fiancee and a group of refugees from the ZIRNDORF camp on
September 12 1955. He re-escaped West because, as he put it, he was
afraid of the secret police's sudden manifestation of interest
in his person. (Redefection covered in MUNICH RFE Item No 8839/55
and Eval. Comment to same.) His experiences are described in
SALZBURG RFE Item No 8047/56; our" comment to that Item is that
we have some doubt as to the whole story and these doubts persist
still.

Hynek RICHTER, a circus artist who returned to the
CSR in April last, arrived in Austria this September. He was the
first to bring information concerning the new redefectors1
center at PRAGUS-Pankrac. (SALZBURG RFE Item No. 9713/56.)

MUNICH RFE ITEM No. 9889/56 reported on another
re-redefector whose name was not given.

MUNICH RFE Item No. 9890/56 dealt with Zdenek NEJDL,
former lieutenant of the 4091 Labor Service Company in BAUMHOLDER)
Western Germany, who redefected in summer of 1955. In September
1956 NEJDL was apprehended by West-German police authorities in
the border zone and again requested asylum as a political refugee.
He was arrested, however, on suspicion of being an agent of the
Czechoslovak Intelligence Service.

In early October 1956 German police arrested Kamil
CERVENKA, a former political refugee, who redefected in October
1955. "The police have reason to suspect that he was sent to
Germany on a special mission of the Czechoslovak Secret Police,"
MUNICH RFE ITEM No. 10392/56 states.

x x x

[page 44]

PART IX

DEVELOPMENT OF THE REDEFECTION IN LIGHT OF THE KNOWN OFFICIAL
LISTS OF NAMES.

Number of Redefectors:	Announced on:	By	Remark:

2	May 22	Radio PRAGUE	
			Total (in May 1955) : 2
1	June 3	"Rude Pravo"
1	June 4	Radio PRAGUE
1	June 5	"Rude	Pravo"
5	June 10	Radio PRAGUE
2	June 14	"V.of H."
2	June 15	Radio PRAGUE
2	June 16	Radio PRAGUE
6	June 22	Radio PRAGUE and
			"V.of H.M
3	June 23	Radio PRAGUE
1	June 24	Radio PRAGUE
7	June 28	Radio PRAGUE
12	June 30	Radio PRAGUE
			Total (in June 1955) : 43
3	July 5	"Prace”
2	July 8	"Rude Pravo"
2	July 9	"Rude Pravo"
3	July lo	"Rude Pravo"
1	July 25	Radio PRAGUE
l	July 28	Radio PRAGUE
7	July 22	"Rude Pravo"
3	July 26	"V.of H. "
1	July 29	Radio PRAGUE
1	July 31	Radio PRAGUE
			Total (in July 1955) : 24
2	August 4	"Lidova Demokracie"
12	August 5	Radio PRAGUE
12	August 7	Radio PRAGUE
4	August 7	CSTSKA
5	August 9	"Y.of H."
5	August 11	Radio PRAGUE
	August 11	"Rude Pravo"
2	August 12	Radio PRAGUE
6	August 15	Radio PRAGUE
5	August 19	Radio PRAGUE
1	August 20	"Cs, Svet"
1	August 23	"V.of H."
1	August 25	Radio PRAGUE
5	August 26	Radio PRAGUE
1	August 27	"Praee”
7	August 31	Radio PRAGUE
			Total	(in August 1955) : 72 

[page 45]

Number of Redefectors:	Announced on		By	Remark:

4	Sept. 6	Radio PRAGUE
14	Sept. 6	"V.of H"
1	Sept. 7	"Rude Pravo"
2	Sept. 8	Radio PRAGUE
5	Sept. 10	"Rude Pravo"
11	Sept. 17	CETEKA
5	Sept. 17	"Rude Pravo"
9	Sept. 20	"V. of H."
3	Sept. 21	"Prace"
CM	Sept. 25	Radio PRAGUE
1	Sept. 26	CETEKA
4	Sept. 26	"Rude Pravo"
2	Sept. 27	"V.of H."
6	Sept. 28	"Prace"
1	Sept. 30	"Straz Lidu"
			Total (in Sept.1955): 70
1	October 4	Radio PRAGUE
3	October 4	"V. of H."
8	October 5	Radio PRAGUE and "Prace"
2	October 9	Radio PRAGUE
2	October 11	"Prace"
17	October 14	"Rude Pravo"
7	October 18	Radio PRAGUE
5	October 18	"V.of H."
1	October 25	Radio PRAGUE
13	October 25	"V.of K."
19	October 26	Radio PRAGUE
			Total (in Oct.1955): 78
9	Nov. 1	"V.of H."
12	Nov. 2	Radio PRAGUE
13	Nov. 3	Radio PRAGUE
22	Nov. 4	Radio PRAGUE
15	Nov. 8	Radio PRAGUE
4	Nov. 8	"V.of H."
1	Nov. 15	"V.of H."
11	Nov. 25	Radio PRAGUE
17	Nov. 25	"V.of H."
4	Nov. 25	"Rude Pravo"
3	Nov. 26	"Prace"
13	Nov. 29	"V.of H."
			Total (in Nov.1955) : 124
9	Dec. 6	"V.of H."
15	Dec. 13	"V.of H."
8	Dec. 20	"V.of H."
1	Dec. 22	Radio PRAGUE
14	Dec. 24	Radio PRAGUE
13	Dec. 27	"V.of H."
3	Dec. 30	"Vecerni Praha" 
			Total (in Dec.1955) : 63

[page 46]

Number of Redefectors:	Announced on:	By:	Remark:

5	Jan. 3	"V.of H." 
8	Jan. 10	"V. of H."
7	Jan. 17	"V. of H."
1	Jan. 19	Radio PRAGUE
1	Jan. 20	CETEKA
1	Jan. 31	"V.of H."
			Total	(in Jan.1956): 23
13	Feb. 7	"Y.of H. "
1	Feb. 9	"Cs.Svet"
4	Feb. 14	Radio PRAGUE and "V. of H."
5	Feb. 27	"V.of H."
			Total (in Peb.1956): 23
4	March 6	"V.of H."
7	March 13	"V.of H."
4	March 20	"V.of H."
				Total (in March 195 6) :15
7	Apr. 2	"V.of H."
1	Apr. 5	"Mlada Fronta"
1	Apr. 13	Radio PRAGUE
4	Apr. 17	"V.of H."
				Total (in Apr.1956): 13
4	May 2	"V.of H."
2	May 15	"V.of H."
9	May 20	"Pravda" and "Prace"
5	May 26	"V.of H."
			Total (in May 1956): 20
7	June 3	"Prayda"
4	June 13	"V.of H."
2	June 22	Radio PRAGUE
5	June 26	"V. of H."
1	June 29	"Prace"
			Total (in June 1956): 19
1	July 5	Radio PRAGUE
3	July 7	Radio PRAGUE
5	July 8	"Lud"
2	July 9	Radio PRAGUE
4	July 10	"V.of H."
7	July 17	"Rude Pravo"
			Total (in July 1956): 22
9	Aug. 7	"V.of H."
5	Aug. 21	"V.of H."
			Total (in Aug.1956): 14
3	Sept. 4	"V.of H. "
7	Sept. 18	"V.of H."
			Total (in Sept.1956): 10
7	Oct. 2	"V.of H.
7	Oct. 16	"V.of H."
8	Oct. 28	"Rude Pravo"
6	Oct. 30	"V. of H."
			Total (in Oct.1956): 28

[page 47]

Number of Redefectors:	Announced on:	By:	Remark:

1	Nov. 8	"Rovnost"
1	Nov. 11	"Prace"
5	Nov. 13	"V.of H."
1	Nov. 21	Radio PRAGUE
4	Nov. 29	"V.of H."
			Total (in Nov.1956): 12
x 8	Dec. 11	"V.of H."
			Total (in Dec.1956): 8
x (These eight redefectors undoubtedly returned to the CSR before
the end of the amnesty.)

The particular figures pertain to the number of new
redefectors; for example "Rude Pravo" of October 14 1955 named
19 redefectors. We count, however, only 17, because redefectors
LUKAS and his wife were already cited in the "Hlas Domova" (Voice
of Homeland) on September 20 1955.

Altogether the above-mentioned official sources
announced the names of 683 redefectors who returned to Czechoslovakia
during the period of May 9 1955 through November 30 1956; the rest
of redefectors (60) are known from our own sources only.

[page 48]

Supplement to Part IX.
Number of redefectors/ in liht of official announcements	120 - 129	110 - 119	100 - 109	90 - 99	80 - 89	70 - 79	60 - 69	50 - 59	40 - 49	30 - 39	20 - 29	19-Oct	0 - 9
December	1956												8
November	1956											12
October	1956										28
September	1956											10
August	1956											14
July	1956										22
June	1956											19
May	1956										20
April	1956											13
March	1956											15
February	1956										23
January	1956										23
December	1955						63
November	1955	124
October	1955					78
September	1955					70
August	1956					72
July	1955										24
June	1955								43
May	1955												2

[page 49]

PART X

SURVEY OF COUNTRIES OF REDEFECTION

Name of the Country:	Number of Redefectors:
Algeria	1
Argentine	4
Australia	41
Austria	50
Belgium	3
Brazil	31
Canada	44
Chile		2
England	23
France	34
French Legion	66
Germany	275
Germany - Labor Service Companies	29
Israel	3
Italy	12
Morocco	3
New Zealand	1
Norway	15
Spain		2
Sweden	12
Switzerland	3
USA	6
Venezuela	7
	667
	Not clear --- 76
	Total 743 adults whose names are contained in Part XI (ad.B) of this report.

[page 50]

PART XI - A
ad A: LIST OF PERSONS KNOWN TO HAVE RETURNED TO THE
CSR BEFORE THE AMNESTY OF MAY 1955

Name:	Redefected from: - in:	Source:
BENESOVA Jirina	Germany, 1954 (See Josef SVEJNAR)	MUNICH It.No.10524/54
BRYCH Josef	Germany, summer 1954	HAMBURG It.No.11344/54
FOLTA Bruno,age 21	Germany, Sept. 1954	RFE Monit.Sept.29 1954
HASEK Otakar	French Legion, probably 1953	Hlas Domova ("Voice of Homeland") June 14, 1954
KLIMA Adolf	Germany, 1953	Hlas Domova, Aug. 2 1955
KOMAREK Anton!n	Germany, 1953	MUNICH It.No.671/56
KRAHULEC (fnu)	Germany, 1949	MUNICH It.No.9828/54
KRECEK (fnu) age 24	Germany, 1949	MUNICH It.No.9828/54
LAUSMAN Bohumil	Austria, Dec. 25 1953	RPE Monit.May 16 1954
LEYEROVA Marie	Germany, 1954	MUNICH It.No.9039/54
NENUTIL Vladim!r	Germany, 1951	WELS It.No.9648/54
OLEHLIK Oldrich, age 50	Austria, Feb. 1955	LINZ It.No.2704/55
PALES Erv!n	Vietnam, 1952	Hlas Domova, Aug.2 1955
SURY Miroslav	French Legion, 1951	Hlas Domova, June 14 1955
SVEJNAR Josef	Germany, 1954 (Married to Jirina BENESOVA)	MUNICH It.Nos.105 24/54, 4630/55, 874/56
VLASTOVICKA (fnu)	Germany, 1952	MUNICH It.No.14192/52
VSETICKA Vlastimil, age 33	Germany, 1949	Hlas Domova, June 22 1955
ZVOLSKY Frantisek	Germany, July 1954	RFE Monit.July 31 1954
and		
20 GS citizens	Vietnam, had returned in 1952	Hlas Domova Aug. 2 1955
and		
300 prisoners of war	Former members of French Legion	VIENNA RFE Item No.7444/54

Remark: According to the sources available, the total number of
those who have returned or who have been returned to the CSR prior
the amnesty of May 9 1955 amounts to 338 persons. This figure
is not included in the statistics contained in Part IX and Part X
respectively.

[page 51]

PART XI - B

ad.B: NOMINAL ROLL OF REDEFECTORS WHO RETURNED AFTER
THE AMNESTY OF MAY 9 1955

- "Hlas Domova" means the organ of the Committee For
Redefectors; it has been also quoted above as
"Voice of Homeland" or, "VoH"
- ISC means Labor Service Company
- CETEKA means Czechoslovak Press Agency

This list includes 743 names of redefectors. This figure
includes 29 wives of foreign origin who accompanied their
redefector-husbands; it does not include 96 children under 18 years of age
who came to the CSR with their parents.

Name and Age:	Redefected from: - in:	Source:
1. ABESKA Oldrich	Australia, Oct. 1956 (See KUBACKOVA)	Hlas Domova, Oct 16 1956
2. ACKERMANN Otakar, 30	French Legion, 1956	Hlas Domova, July 24 1956
3. ADAMEC T.	- Oct. 1956	Rude Pravo, 0ct 28 1956
4. ANDER Jan	Germany, 1955	RFE Monit., 0ct 10 1955; Hlas Domova, Nov 22 1955
5. ANDRANOYA Marie	Germany,end of Dec 55 (alias TRINKALINOSOVA, suspected of espionage for CSR	MUNICH It.No.424/56
6. ANDRASOVIC Frantisek	Australia, 1955	Hlas Domova, Dec 29,1955
7. ANDRES Jan, 30	Brazil, July 56	Hlas Domova, Aug 7 1956
8. ANTENE Jindrich, 23	Austria, 1955	Hlas Domova, Oct 25 1955
9. ANTL Josef	Austria, 1955	RFE Monit., Dec 24 1955; Hlas Domova, Jan 3 1956; SALZBURG It.No.959/56
10. BACIKOVA Vlasta, 32 (and child)	Canada, 1955	Hlas Domova, Jan 10 1956
11. BACKOVSKA Marie	Venezuela (Nee SIEBER, German origin)	RFE Monit., June 22 1956
12. BACKOVSKY Bohum!r (and sons Karel and Petr)	Venezuela, June 56 (Husband of BACKOVSEA Marie)	RFE Monit. June 22 1956
13. BAJUSZ Juraj	- -	Hlas Domova Jan 3 1956
14. BALAZ Jan, 30	Germany, Jan 30 1956	Hlas Domova Feb.27 1956 MUNICH It.7000/56
15. BALOUN Josef, 30	Australia, July 7 56	Hlas Domova Aug 7 1956
16. BARAN Frantisek, 20	Germany, end July 55	MUNICH It.No.6820/55
17. BAROCH Karel, 34	England	Hlas Domova, March 13,56 Rude Pravo July 8 1957

[page 52]

Name and Age:	Redefected from: - in:	Source:
18. BAROCHOVA Maria	England (nee LATACHER of Austrian origin, wife of BAROCH)	Hlas Domova March 13 1956
19. BAKON Josef, 25	Canada	Hlas Domova Jan 10 1956; MUNICH It.No.873/56
20. BARTA Emil	French Legion	Rude Pravo nov 25; Hlas Domova nov 29 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 10 1956
21. BARTOLSIC Anton!n	- -	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
22. BARTON Bohuslav, 27	Brazil	Hlas Domova Aug 21 1956
23. BAZANT Jan	Brazil	Background report of July 2 1956
24. BAZANT Josef, 32	Brazil	MUNICH It.No.6900/56
25. BAZANTOVA Jarom!ra (and two children)	Brazil (wife of Josef BAZANT)	MUNICH It.No.6900/56
26. BEDNAR (fnu)	Italy, probably Sept. 1955	SALZBURG It.No.8047/56
27. BEDNAR Karel, 33	England, July 56	Hlas Domova,Aug 7 1956
28. BEDNAROVA Marie, 26 (and two children)	(wife of Karel BEDNAR, nee OUHADOVit	dtto
29. BEDNAR Ladislav, 32	Austria, Aug 30 1955 (see GRAJICOVA, his fiancee)	WELS It.No.7560/55; CETEKA Sept 17 1955; LINZ It.No.8257/55
30. BELINGER Anton!n, 26	Germany, July 2 1955	MUNICH It.No.5797/55
31. BELKA Josef, 34	Brazil	Background report of July 2 1956
32. BENHARDT Frantisek,24	Germany, Dec 30 1955 (See KLIMTOVA his fiancee)	Hlas Domova Peb 7 1956 MUNICH It.No.7000/56
33. BENKOVIC Imrich	LSC, Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
34. BERANOV  Vlasta	Austria	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955
35. BERGEROVA Marta, 19	Germany (sister of Step nka BERGEROVA	RFE Monit.Aug 31 1955
36. BERGEROVA Step nka ,21	Germany (sister of Marta BERGEROVA	RFE Monit.Aug 31 1955
37. BERMANOVA Ruth, 23	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
38. BERNARD Josef, 41	Germany	Hlas Domova June 26 1956
39. BERNHARDT Alfred, 20	Germany March 21 1956	MUNICH It.No.5510/56
40. BILISNANSKY Vasil, 32	LSC,Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
41. BIRO Stefan, 29	France	Hlas Domova Dec 11 1956
42. BLAHA V clav, 59	USA	Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
43. BLAZEJ Jarom!r,21	Germany	RFE Monit.June 22 1955 and X
44. BLAZEK Bedrich	Germany, England, Sept. 3 1955	Straz Lidu of Sept.30 1955
45. BLECHA Rudolf	Germany (returned probably with two children)	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955; and of Feb.14 1956
46. BOCHIM Peter, 31	Brazil	Background report of July 2 1956
			Hlas Domova Oct 30 1956

[page 53]

Name and Age:	Redefected from: -in:	Source:
47. BOCK Jan, 60	Germany, March 21 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
48. BOCKCVA Justina, 33	Germany, March 28 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
49. BOEHK Josef	- -	CETEKA Sept.17 1955
50. BOEHMOVA Bozena (Josef BOEHM's wife)	CETEKA Sept 17 1955
51. BORECKA Nadezda	Austria (Nee KOCANOVA wife of Miroslav BORECKY)	SALZBURG It.No.2129/56
52. BORECKY Frantisek, 59	Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 16 1956
53. BORECKY Miroslav	Austria (escaped West in 1954; allegedly sent to the CSR by US Intelligence, used this	RFE Monit. Feb 3 1956; Hlas Domova Feb 7 1956 SALZBURG It.No.2129/56 opportunity to stay there)
54. BRAZDA V clav, 55	Norway	RFE Monit.Sept 19; Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955
55. BREITKOPF Willibald, 26	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1956
56. BROZZ Jir!, 25	Germany, Aug 1956	Hlas Domova Oct 2 1956
57. BROZOVSKY Stanislav, 35	Germany Oct 1956	Rude Pravo Oct. 28; Hlas Domova Nov 13 1956
58. BROZOVSKA Jirina	Germany (wife of Stanislav BROZOVSKY, nee STUPKOVA. They returned with their son Stanislav B.)	dtto
59. BRTVA Emanuel	Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955; MUNICH It.No.4208/56
60. BUBENIK Milan	French Legion, Germany	Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955
61. BUDINA Jindrich, 28	Germany, April 15 1956	MUNICH It.No.5510/56
62. BUKAC Oldrich, 33	Germany, March 25 1956 (together with five-year old son)	Mlada Fronta Apr 5 1956; MUNICH It.No.7000/56 and 5510/56
63. BURIAN Jaroslav	- -	Hlas Domova Aug 9 1955
64. CADA Ladislav	French Legion	Rude Pravo Nov 25; Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955; Hlas Domova March 20 1956
65. CARDA Bedrich	French Legion, France	Rude Pravo Nov 25; Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
66. CECHTICKA Anna	Austria (wife of Frant CECHTICKY; of Austrian-English origin; returned together their "family"	CETEKA May 19; Pravda May 20; Hlas Domova May 29 1956
67. CECHTICKY Frantisek, 36	Austria	dtto
68. CEKAL Frantisek, 51	Canada	Prace Oct 26; Hlas Domova Nov 1 and Nov 29 1955
69. CEPERA Miroslav, 27	Germany	RFE Monit.Aug 23 1955
70. CERNICEK Cypri n, 23	French Legion (was 16 when he escaped)	RFE Monit.Dec 5; Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
71. CERNY Emanuel	Germany	Hlas Domova Feb 7 1956

[page 54]

Name and Age		Redefected from: -in:	Source
72. CERNY Frantisek,33	Germany,June 11 1955	EFE Monit.June 23; MUNICH It.No.7930/55 _
73. CERNY Frantisek, 23	Austria end May 1955	WELS It.No.5306/55
74. CERNY Josef	Germany	Rude Pravo Sept 26; Hlas Domova Oct 4 1955
75. CERNY Josef, 27	Australia,1956	Hlas Domova Oct 30 195 6
76. CERNÁ Rita	(Josef CERITt's Germai wife accompanied by 	dtto son of unknown age)
77. CERVENKA Bedrich, 29	Germany (see Matylds UERVENKOVA)	Hlas Domova Jan 3 195 6; MUNICH It. No.4208/56"
78. CERVENKA Frantisek	Austria	WELS It.No.7450/55
79. CERVENKA Kamil, 38	LSC,Germany (Re-redefected in Oct 1956; probably Communist agent)	Hlas Domova Nov 29 and Dec 6 1955; MUNICH It.Nos.868/5 6 and 10392/56
80. CERVENKOVA Matylda	Germany (wife of Bedrich SSRVENEA,nee MACHALO^	l&\ the same source)
81. CERVENY (fnu)	Germany	Hlas Domova Aug 9 1955
82. CHALOUPKA Frantisek,	27 Germany June 30 1955	MUNICH It.Nos.4814 and 7930/55
83. CHOVANIAK Josef		Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955
84. CHRDLE Miroslav, 28	Germany,Sept 12 1955	MUNICH It.No.7931/55; Rude Pravo Sent 27 1955
85. CHUDLARSKY Josef, 25	Canada	Hlas Domova Dec lj 1955
86. CHURAVA (fnu)	Germany (Josef.CHU-	RFE Monit.June 28 1955
		RAVY's wife of Germar origin)
87. CHURAVY Josef, 28	Germany	(see'CHURAVÁ fnu)
88. CHYLE Alfred, 24	French Legion,France	Rude Pravo Sept.10 and Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955
89. CIKEROVA Zdenka, 56	uanacla (nee KYIZOVÁ)	Prace,0ct 26 1955
90. CIRIBAN Jan, 61	Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 11 195 6
91. CIZEK Jaroslav, 35	England,Germany	Hlas Domova Sept 4 1956
92. CIZEK Karel, 56	Canada	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955; MUNICH It.No.873/56
93. CUBR Frantisek, 25	French Legion, (Prisoner of war at 3	Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955 3ien-Bien-Phu)
94. CULIK (fnu)	Germany	MUNICH It.No.10670/55
95. DANISOVSKY Vojtech	French Legion,Germ.	Hlas Domova Jan 10 195 6
96. DAUBNEROVA Johanna, 79	Germany March 9,56	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
97. DELINA Emil, 28	England (According to Hlas Domova of Sept should read J á n	Rude Pravo Sept 10 1955 20 1955 his first name
98. DIVIS VLASTIMIL, 31	Canada	Prace Oct 26; RFE Monit. Oct 31 1955; Hlas Domova Aug 21 1956

[page 55]

Name and Age		Redefected from: - in:		Source
99. D0BR0V0DSK1 Anna	Austria (According to of 1955; still UNCONFIRMED)	a MUNICH background report 
100. DOCKAL Frantisek,5 3	Austria, Nov 8 1955	LINZ It.No.9859; WELS It.No.10129/55 and Hlas Domova Dec 20 1955
101. DOKSANSKT Josef,24	Germany, Feb 25 195 6	MUNICH It.Nos.2759 and 5510/56
102. DOLEZAL Jan,30	USA (Emigrated to Switzerland in 1945, to the United States)	RFS Monit.Aug 31 1955 then - probably in 1949 -
103. DOLE2AL Josef ,65	France	Hlas Domova June 13 1956
104. DOMACNEK Frantisek. 30	Austria	Rude Pravo July 10 1955
105. DOPERT Josef,42	Germany,May 27 1955	RFE Monit.June 15 1955; Spec.report No.70/1955
106. DOPERTOVif Marie,42	Germany (Josef DOPERT's together)	wife;they returned
107. DOBHOCIAK Andreo,26	Canada	Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955 and Jan 3 1956
108. DOSTAL Bruno PhDr	Canada	Hlas Domova Sept 18 1956
109. DOSTALEK Jaroslav	Germany	Rude Pravo July 17 1956
110. DOUBEK Bohuslav,19	Germany June 10 1955	RFE Monit.June 28 1955; MUNICH It.No.4814/55
111. DOUEK Karel,38	Brazil	RFE Monit.Oct 18; Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955
112. DOUDERA Frantiek	ISC , Germany	Prace June 29 1956
113. DRESLSR Bohuslav,21	Germany,Summer 1956	Hlas Domova Oct 16 195 6
114. DUBNT Ondrej,35	Germany,France	RFE Monit.Sept 6 1955
115. DUCHON Antonin	(Twelve members of	RFE Monit.Aug 5 1955;
116. DUCHON Karel	one family;some of	Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955;
117. DUCHON Robert,50	them lived in USA,	MUNICH It.No.7930/55
118. DUCHONVA clav	other group in Brazil	and England respectively.
119. DUCHONVA Marie,22	They redefected on July	20 1955 via WAIDHAUS,
120. DUCHOfOVA Antonie	except for Marie D.who	returned on August 6,55.)
121. DUCHON (fnu)
122. DUCHON (fnu)
123. DUCHON (fnu)
124. DUCHON (fnu)
125. DUCHON (fnu)
126. DUCHOIf (fnu)
127. DUDA Peter,33	Germany, Feb 25 1956	MUNICH It.Nos.5510 and 7000/5 6; Hlas Domova March 13 and March 30 1956
128. DUDA Vojtech	Austria, France	Prace Oct 26 1955
129. DUFKA Frantisek,33	Germany	Hlas Domova Sept 18 Oct 30 1956;
130. BUSEK Josef,33	Spain,Oct 1956	Rude Pravo Oct 28 195 6; Hlas Domova Nov 13 1956

[page 56]

Name and Age		Redefected from: - in:	Source
131. DUSEK Karel,51	France	Hlas Domova March 13 1956
132. DVORAK Jar0slav,33	Germany,Feb 195 6	MUNICH It.Nos.2759/56 and 8369/56
133. DVORAK Jioo,32	Canada	Prace Oct 26; Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955;SALZBURG It.No. 4152/5 6
134. DVORAK (fnu),28	Germany,early 195 6; (escaped West in 1946)	MUNICH It.No.10133/56
135. DVORAK Ladislav,25	French Legion,G-ermany	RFE Monit.Sept 6 1955
136. DVORAKOVÁ Marie,34	Germany (Former RFE employee;returned together with her mother 11-year daughter Miche	RFS Monit.Nov 8 1955; MUNICH It.No.1219/56 etc. _ Marie Irma I), and her ile D. )
137. DVORÁKOVÁ Marie	Irma ,58 Germany	dtto
138. EDR 01drich,25	EGLEROVJC (See LEVJ!	Germany	Prace Oct 5 1955; Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
139. SNIS30VA Jifinaf30	Canada (Nee J/TSHlCKJt; returned, with her daughter)	Hlas Domova Dec 6 1955; SALZBURG It.No.4152/56;
140.ERBENQVÁ Kveta,28	Germany,May 14 1956 (Nee SEPOVit, re turned with her three childre	MUNICH It.Nos.5510 and 5919/56 m)
141. SRDC'SSY Eudovft	Germany,1956	Hlas Domova Sept 18 1956
142. ERET Miroslav,25	Germany	Prace Oct 5; Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
143. ERHART Emanuel	Australia,Dec 1955	Vecerni Praha Dec 30,1955
144. FAUST Václav,35	Germany	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955 and April 2 1956
145. FECKO Karol	French Legion,Austria (Escaped West already	Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955 ^ in 1947)
146. FIALA Alois,43	Germany,June 15 1955	RFS Monit.June 28; MUNICH It.No.7930/55
147. FIALA Petr	Germany (He had lived in Germany since alres	Hlas Domova SeTrb 27 1955 idy 1946)
148. FILIP Frantisek	France	Hlas Domova Feb 7 1956
149. FISER Jan, 32	French Legion (POW from Vietnam;arrived in Prague on June 14 i	RFE Monit.June 30; MUNICH It.No.5407/55; ria Russia)
150. FISER Jarloslav	Germany	RFE Monit.Aug 15 1955
151. FLEISCHER Jiri	Austria	Hlas Domova Feb 7 195 6
152. FORGHHEIM Milan	Australia,Oct 1956 (Dennounced himself to be a spy)	Rude Pravo Oct 28 195 6 Hlas Domova Oct 30 1956
153. FRANCL Simon	Germany	Lud July 8 195 6 |
154. FRANKO Josef,27	French Legion, France (Escaped already in 	Hlas Domova Oct 30 195 6 )47)

[page 57]

Name	and Age	Redefected from: - in;	Source
155. FRANTA Zdenek	Germany,Aug 12 1955	MUNICH It.No.6964/55; Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955; VIENNA It.No.IO389/55; SALZBURG It.No.2691/56
156. FREISLER VSroslav,29	Germany,Oct 1955	Hlas Domova Nov 22 and Dec 13 1955
157. FRIBERT Stefan,26	Germany	Rude Pravo Sept 17; Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
158. FRIEBER Bretislav,25	Germany	RFE Monit.Oct 25; MUNICH It.No.9858/55
159. FRIC Jiri	Germany	MUNICH It.No.9987/55
160. FUSRBACH Josef	Germany, Sept 13 1955 (UNCONFIRMED case)	MUNICH It.No.8006/55
161. GILDEIN Rudolf ,26	Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 4 1955
162. GOERSCHNER (fnu)	Brazil	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
163. GOERSCHNEROVÁ Milada	Brazil (GOERSCHNER's wife;they returned to	dtto gether with two children.
164. GOMBEK Miroslav,29	French Legion,Germany May 195 6	RFE Monit.July 5 1956; Hlas Domova July 10 195 6
165. GOMBIK Josef,27	Australia	Hlas Domova Jan 17 1956
166. GONDEK Eduard Frantisek	England May 195 6 (Escaped Austria already in 1947)	Prace May 20 195 6; Hlas Domova Oct 30 195 6
167.GONDEKOVÁ Judita 	Eliska, 30 England (Returned with her daughter Jeanette;E.5 followed.)	Hlas Domova April 3 1956 and May 15 195 6 GONDEE, her husband,
168. GORDIÁN Jan,19	Germany,July 6 195 6	MUNICH It.Nos.4814 and 7930/55; Hlas Domova Sept.27 1955
r169. GOROI Jan,34	Germany,end June 55	MUNICH It.No.53o4/55
170. GOETZ Josef,23	Germany (He is of . German origin)	Hlas Domova June 13 195 6
171. GRANT Geor ,35	Germany,June 25 1955	MUNICH It.Nos.7930/55 and 3003/5 6
172. GRTSJTXK Franti sek	Germany	Hlas Domova Jan 10 195 6
173. GREZDO Arnost,25	French Legion	RFS Monit.Oct 18; Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
174. GROM Vincenc	Italy,early Aug 1955	ROME It.No.9832/55
175. GRUJBAR Stefan,33	Austria July 28 1955"	RFE Monit.Aug 15; WELS It.No.Spec.rep.No. 97/55
176. GRUJBAROVA Anna,24	Austria,early July 1955 (Wife of Stefan old daughter Ester)	RFE Monit.July 31,1955 G; returned with one-year-

[page 58]

Name	and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
177. GRUJISOVA Huzena,33	Austria (Nee NOVOTM; she had lived since 1946 in Yugoslavia; above.)	Rude Pravo Sept.17; Hlas Domova Sept 27 1955; fiancee of L.BEDNAR,see
178. G-URSCK? Bohumir,29	Canada	Hlas Domova Dec 6 1955 and Jan 3 1956
179. HABICH Leopold Rudolf,	39 Germany Feb 25 1	.956 Hlas Domova March 13; MUNICH It.No.7000/56
180. HABIRA Frantisek,29	Prance,Belgium	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
181. HAJEK Evzen,28	Brazil,Paraquay	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955 and of March 8 1956
182. HAJEK Frantisek,40	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 29 195 6 ^i
183. HAJNDI Frantisek	Italy	RFE Monit.Aug 11 1955
184. HAKEL Otto		RFS Monit.Aug 19 1955
185. HAMEELB Josef,19	Germany Sept 12 1955	MUNICH It.No.7931/55; Rude Pravo Sept 27 1955
186. HAMOUZ Rudolf ,35	Brazil	KFE Monit.Dec 24 1955; Hlas Domova Jan 3 1956
187. HAKROVA Libuse	USA,Oet 1955	RFB Monit.Oct 10 1955; Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
188. HANCIN Pavol,24	Canada (Escaped already in Oct"l947,ret	Hlas Domova March 20 195 6 :urned to CSR in Feb 1956)
189. HANKO Stefan,33	LCS,Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 15 1955
190. HANZLICEK Lubomir,3C	Italy	RFE Monit.Aug 15; Special report 116/1955
191. HARTJSMK Jan,30	Germany,Sept 1956	MUNICH It.No.9066/56
192. HASJAK Vladislav,33	Sweden	Hlas Domova Aug 21 195 6; RFS Monit. of Sept 30,5 6
193. HASJAKOVit Jirina,32	Sweden (Nee HERMANOVA, wife of Vladislav HASJAK)	dtto
194. HAULER Jiri	Germany	Ceskoslovensky Svet Aug 20,1955
195. HEIDELBERGER Rudolf,	44 Germany (Ethnic German who had lived in Germany since 1945	Rude Pravo Sept 17; Hlas Domova Sept 27 1955
196. HEJNOVA Jaromira,27	Germany (She returned-ed, with her two-year-Hals old child)	RFE Monit.June 28; Hlas Domova Aug 2 1955;
197. HERMAN Frantisek,40	Austria,early Sept 55	Rude Pravo Sept 17 1955; Mlada Fronta Feb 5 195 6
198. HLADKA Marketa	England Aug 1955 (Returned to the CSR with her two children hush and foillwed)	RFS Monit.Aug 15; LONDON RFS It.No.7327/55; ;Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
199. HLADKY Jaroslav	England (Husband of Marketa HLADKA)	Prace Nov 26 1955 5 Hlas Domova Jan 3 1956

[page 59]

Name	and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
200. HLAVACEK Jan	Australia Oct 1955	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
201. HLAVINKA Josef,28	Germany, France (According to PARIS fected from France ar should read J a r o	Rude Pravo June 29 1955 :t.No.8869/55 he rede-Ld his correct first name slav)
202. HLAVNISKA Vaclav,26	Germany	RFE Monit.July 25 1955
203. HOFMAN Josef	Canada	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
204. HOLENKA Stefan	G-ermany	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
205. HOLUB Karel,29	French Legion (For de	tailsails see Jan FTSER)
206. HOLY Alois	France,LSC,Germany	Hlas Domova May 29 1956
207. HOLZKNECHT Josef,40	Germany,Jan 28 195 6	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
208. HOLZKNECHT Miroslav,	20 Germany May 29 195	6 Pravda June 3 1956
209. HOLZKNECHTOVA Irma,28	Germany (Wife of Josef HOLZKNECHT and	MUNICH It.No.7000/56 three children)
210. HOMOLA Andrej,51	Australia	CETEKA May 19 195 6; Hlas Domova May 26 195 6
211. HONSOVjS Karolina	Germany	MUNICH It.No.10660/56
212. HORA Petr,30	Germany,July 23 1955 (He also used name KUMBAR Vlastimil)	MUNICH It.No.6493/55 RFE Monit.Aug 12 1955
213. HORSKY (or HORKY) Zc	lenek Australia	Rude Pravo Nov 25; Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
214. HORUSICKT Otto,35	Germany,Oct 25 1955	MUNICH It.Nos.9598/55 and 868/5 6
215. HOSEK Jan,39	Australia	Hlas Domova Oct 16 1956
216. HOUSSR Bohumil,34	Germany,Oct 31 1956	MUNICH It.No.10590/56
217. HOZNOURSK Miroslav,:	36 Brazil	Rude Pravo Sept 10; Hlas Domova Sept 20 and Nov 8 1955;US background of July 2 195 6
218. HRABOVSKT Jan,41	Germany	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955 and Feb 7 195 6; RFE Monit.March 7 195 6
219. HRBEK Richard	Germany	Lud July 8 195 6
220. HRDLI^KA Josef ,44	Germany May 1955	Rude Pravo June 3 MUNICH It.No.6430/55
221. HRDLIK Josef,35	LSC.Germany March 7	1955 MUNICH It.No,5510/56
222. HRNCIH Frantiek,26	Canada	Prace Oct 26; Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
223. HROCH Josef,cca 50	Canada,Germany	Hlas Domova March 20 195 6
224. HRUBES Jaroslav 31	Germany,end Oct 55	Munich It.No.10292/55
225. HRUBY Milos, 28	Germany Sept 12 1955	Rude Pravo Sept 27; MUNICH It.No.7931/55? Nova Svoboda Nov 3 1955 etce
226. HUBEK Matej ,54	Austria,mid-July 1955	1 UNCONFIRMED information from MUNICH Inf.Bureau
227. HUSKOVA Agnes,50	Lustria (Wife of Matej	| HUSEK) dtto
[page 60]

Fame	and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
228. HVEZDA Antonin,28	Germany July 1 1955	Rude Pravo July 10; MUNICH It.No.5559/55
229. HYNEK Herbert,20	French Legion (for de	tails see Jan FI&ER)
230. JABLOHKA Gejza,43	Canada	Hlas Domova Aug 7 195 6
231. JAKUBEC Milan,32	Canada (Was already Canadian citizen)	Pravda Nov 11 195 6; Hlas Domova Nov 29 1956
232. JAKUBICEK Karel,35	England	RFE Monit.June 2 3 1955
233. JANCEK Pavel,28	Australia	RFE Monit.Nov 2 1955
234. JANISEK Viktor	Germany	Hlas Domova Aug 9 1955
235. JANIK Karel,cca 20	Austria	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955
236. JANOTA Josef,cca 25	Germany	RFE Mcnit.Aug II 1955
237. JANOUEL, Vladislav.	29 Australia	Hlas Domova Oct 2 195 6 ^
2 38. JANTULlK Karol,23	Germany	Hlas Dmova July 24 195 6
239. JANTULIKOVA Hildegard	Germany (Wife of K.JANTULIK,nee GALLS,	dtto of German ofigin and child)
240. JAROS Rudolf ,27	Australia,Sept 24,195	5 RFE Monit.Sept 25 1955
241. JASEK Jaromfr	Germany July 23 1955	MUNICH It.No.6493/55
242. JERABK Ladislav	Brazil	Hlas Domova Feb 14 and 27; Prace Feb 29 195 6
243. JEREMIAS JOSEF,35	Germany	Hlas Domova May 2 195 6
244. JEREMIA30VA Betty	Germany (fife of Jose JEREMIAD,of German or CSR with their son ar who is also of Germar	if dtto ?igin;they returned to the id adopted daughter Karola 1 origin)
245. JINACEK M.	?, Oct 195 6	Rude^Pravo Oct 28 195 6
246. JIRKAL Jiri,36	Austria,autumn 1955 (He allegedly returne Communist agent, in i	VIENNA It.No.3113/5 6 id to Austria again, as "anuary 195 6)
247. JIRKOVSKY Jindrich,	27 French Legion,Frar	ice CETEKA Aug 7; Hlas Domova Sept.27; ^Jf PARIS It.8869/55
248. JIROTKA Josef,53	Canada	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
249. JIRKU Miroslav,29	French Legion (For de	(tails see Jan FISER)
250. JISKRA Josef	French Legion	Rude Pravo Nov 25; Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
251. JONAK Jaromfr	Canada Dec 1955	Vecerni Praha Dec 30 1955; Hlas Domova Jan 10 and 17,5 6
252. JUDL Alois,23	Sweden	Pravda May 20; H^as Domova May 28 1956 and Oct 2 195 6
253. JUDLOVÁ Marianne	Sweden (Wife of Alois JUDL;she is of Swedish	5 dtto origin; and child)
254. JUHAS Julius,25	ISC,Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955
255. JURICEK Vladimir. 34	Australia (with his eight-year-old daughiter)	Hlas Domova July 24 195 6 
256. JURIK Jan,39	Australia	Rovnost Nov 8 1956; Hlas Domova Dec 11 1956

[page 61]

Name and Age	Redefected from: -in:	Sources
257. JURIKOVÁ Gertruda	Australia (Wife of Jan JUKlK;nee STOEL-LER, of German origin	Rovnost Nov 8 195 6 Hlas Domova Dec 11 1956 ,;and three children)
258. JUSTICH Miroslav,21 	. Germany July 23 1955	MUNICH It.No.6493/55; Rude Pravo Aug 11 1955; SALZBURG It.No.8047/56
259. JUSZKU Josef		Hlas Domova Sept 27 1955
260. KACIR Josef	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
261. KACIR Josef		Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
262. KADERAVEK Vladimir,	32 Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 11 195 6
263. KAIL FrantiSek	Argentine	Prace Sept 21 1955
264. KAILOVÁ Hilda	Argentine (Wife of Frantisek KAIL and two	dtto children)
265. KAISINGER Adolf		Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
266. KALAtB Jaroslav	Germany	RFE Monit Dec 24 1955
267. KALAS Jiri	Germany,March 195 6 (Former freelancer of	RFE Monit April 13 1956 RFE Bureau in Nueremberg)
268. KALMAR Juraj,28	French Legion	Hlas Domova March 13 1956
269. KAMAS Jan,27	Belgium,Germany	MUNICH It.No.9982/55; Hlas Domova Jan 3 end 17,56
270. KAMBHICKY Otto	French Legion,LSC, Germany	Hlas Domova Sept 20,55
271. KANTA Vojtech,35	Germany,May 25 1955	MUNICH It.4566/55
272. KARAS Vaclav,20	Germany,June 10 1955	MUNICH It.No.4814/55
273. KARDA Vincent,31	Germany June 2 1956	MUNICH It.No.4609/55; RFE Monit.June 11 1955
274. KAZEK Jiri	Austria,Italy,France	CETEKA Gept 17 1955
275. KER Jindrich,53	Brazil	Hlas Dornova Dec 29 1955
276. KILLBERGER Miloslav	,33 French Legion FISER; Hlas Domova Oct	(For more details see Jan 4 1955)
277 KLSCKA Jiri	- -	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955
278. KLEIN Alojz,31	France (Escaped West already in 1947)	Hlas Domova June 26 1956
279. KLEIN0VA Genia	France (Nee GWOZDOVA, Polish origin; Wife of with their son Gerard)	of dtto Alojz KLEIN;they returned 
280. KLIMTOVA Sona,l8	Germany,Dec 30 1955 (Fiancee of BENHART, see abovejreturned tc Lajos)	Hlas Domova Feb 7 195 6; MUNICH It.No.7000/56 ) the CSR with her son
281. KLOFAC Jaroslav,29	Germany,May 16 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
282. KLOUDA FrantiHek	Germany,probably July	55,RFE Monit.Jan 19 195 6
283. KLOVERSA Gebhart		Hlas Domova Jan 17 1956
284. KNlJfS Jaroslav, 39	Venezuela	Hlas Domova Oct 2 195 6
285. KNIZEOVA Marie	Venezuela (Wife of Jaroslav KNlZE; and son)	Hlas Domova Oct 16 1956
286, KOCIAN J á n		RFE Monit.Sept 25 1955

[page 62]

Name	and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
287. KOCUR Anton	Germany, summer 1955 (Allegedly sentenced ment in the GSR)	SALZBURG RFE It.No.9308/5 6 to three years imprison-
288. KOHN Edvard	French Legion,France (His first name should Pravo of Sept 26 1955	CETEKA Sept 26 1955 read - according to Rude E r h a r d
289. KOHOUT Jan	(sailor) (Escaped West already Luxembourg,then he be Hlas Domova Sept 20 1	Rude Pravo Sept 10 1955 in 1946; lived in Germany, came sailor, see also 955)
290. KOHOUTEK Frantisek	French Legion	RFE Monit.Aug 15 1955
291. KOHOUTEK Karel	Switzerland	Hlas Domova Aug 23 1955
292. KOKLAR Frantisek	Germany (Returned to the GSR together with KOERBL)	Rude Pravo Sept 26 1955 his spouse,see Ingeborg
293. KOELBEL Frantisek 	Arnost - -	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
294. KOERBL Ingeborg	Germany (German spouse of Fra,ntisek 	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955 KOKLAR, see above)
295. KOGLAR FrantiSek	Germany,probably Sept 12 1955	SALZBURG It.No.8047/56
296. KOLINSKY Rudolf,24	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Dec 20 1955
297. KOMAREK Richard,27	Germany	Hlas Domova Sept 18 1956
298. KOMENDA Matej, 28	France	RFE Monit.Sept 6 1955
299. KONKOLY Vojtech,25	French Legion (For more	details see Jan FSER)
300. KONRAD Karel	Germany,May 1955 (Might be that he haS already before the amnesty)	RFE Monit.May 22 1955returned to the CSR 
301. KOPECKY Alois,39	Germany,March 2 1956 (In 1943 he married his German wife,in 1954 CSR; in 1947 he escaj	Hlas Domova April 17; MUNICH It.No.7000/56 he returned to the ied Germany)
302. KOPECKÁ Theresia	Germany,March 2 1956 (Wife of Alois KOPECKY children Gisela, Karl	dtto they returned with their Willi,Werner)
303. KOPIC JaroSlav,23	Germany (Works in Jachymov)	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955 MUNICH It.No.8912/56,
304. KOPPEROVÁ Katarina,	25 Germany Jan 29 195 (According to the MUNICH Item her first returned with her sor	6 Hlas Domova Feb 27 195 6; MUNICH It.No.7000/56 name should read E t e 1 a;
305. KOPTA Zdenek	Germany (Denounced himself as former CIC	RFE Monit.of Nov 21 195 6 agent)
306. KORPAS Josef,22	Germany	Lud July 8; Hlas Domova June 26 1956
307. KOS Alois	Italy Nov 6 1955	ROME It.9832/55 Hlas Domova Jan 10 and 17,56
308. KOSIK Peter,26	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 13 1956

[page 63]

Name	and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
309. KOT Frantisek,29	Canada	Hlas Domova Jan 10 1956
310. KOUDELKA Jiri,33	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Aug 21 1956
311. KOUKAL Jindrich	Germany	MUNICS It.No.1285/56
312. KOVACIK Alois	Germany	RFE Monit.Oct 9 1955
313. KOVANDA Ladislav or	VladimIr (sailor) summer 1955	Hlas Domova Feb 21 195 6 and Aug 21 195 6
314. KOVANDA V clav	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
315. KOVANDOVA Elfride	Germany (Nee REGEN-FUSS, German wife of	dtto Va*clav KOVANDA)
316. KOVANDA Vladislav,34	Australia(Accord-ing to Hlas Domova of name should read V  	Rude Pravo July 8 1955 Sept.20 1955 his first c 1 a v )
317 .KOVJffi Josef ,28	England	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
318. KOVAR Svatoslav	Norway	RFE Monit.Aug 26 1Q55; BERLIN It.No.'7887/55
319. KOVXHOVA (fnu)	Norway (Wife of Sva-toslav KOVJffl. They re their daughters Anna, old Jitka)	dtto turned to the CSR with 10-year-old and 15-year-
320. KOV&R Radslav,l8	Norway (Son of Svatoslav	KOVAR)
321. KOZAR Jan,34	Argentine	Hlas Domova Nov 1; RFE Monit.Oct 18 1955
322. KOZEL FrantiSek	- -	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
323. KRALOVEC Josef	Germany (where he was in prison)	MUNICH It.No.4728/56
324. KRATKY Jiri, 28	French Legion,Germany August 1 1955	MUNICH It.No.6964/55
325. KRATOCHVIL Alois,32	: France (Lived in France since 1946)	RFE Monit.Dec 24 1955; Hlas Domova Jan 3 1956
326. KRATOCHVIL Jiri	France	Hlas Domova Aug 23 1955
327. KRBEK Jiri	Austria (Escaped when 16-year-old)	Rude Pravo Sept 17; Hlas Domova Sept 27 1955
328. KREJCIK Jan	Norway	Hlas Domova June 26 195 6
329. KHSJCIKOVA Anna	Norway (Former STA-GHOViC-LUDVAROVJt; wife returned with their c	dtto of Jan KREJCIK; they children Jan and Soiia;
330. KREMEN Rudolf ,25	Germany,end June 1955	MUNICH It.No.5304/55; WELS It.No.47/56
331. KRICGULA Roman,26	Canada	Hlas Domova Feb 27 1956
332. KRISO Karel,24	Canada	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955
333. KRISTALA Emil,26	Austria July 28 1955	Special report No.97;RFE Monit.Aug 11 1955
334. KRISTOF Miloslav	Germany July 1955	MUNICH It.No.6539/55; Jihoceska Pravda July 29,55 MUNICH It.No.871/5 6
	KRIVANEK Frantisek,	26 Germany Sept 15 19	55 MUNICH It.No.8144/55
336. KRIZ Josef	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
337. KRIZ Miroslav	French Legion	RFE Monit.Aug 11 1955

[page 64]

Name and Age:	Redefected from: - in:	Source

338. KROEBERT Václav	Australia	Hlas Domova Feb 7 1956
339. KRONER Josef, 33	LSC Germany (He escaped 1945)	Hlas Domova July 24 1956
340 KRONEROVÁ Maria		(Nee MATZKOVÁ)	dtto
341. KROULIK Milan, 26	Germany (Returned together with his family)	Hlas Domova Sept 6 and Oct 18 1955
342. KRUZIK Josef	LSG Germany	Hlas Domova Jan 17 1956
343. KRUTINOVÁ Vera, 27	Germany	RFE Monit. June 28 1955
344. KRYZAN Ctibor, 27	Austria	Hlas Domova May 28 1956
345. KRYZANOVÁ Pavla	Austria (Wife of Ctibor KRYZAN; nee RADING	of Austrian origin)	dtto
346. KUBACKOVÁ Milada	Australia,Oct 1956 (Fiancee of ABESKA;	Hlas Domova Oct 16 I956 and children Karel and Vlasta)
347. KUBIN Karel,23	Belgium	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
346. KUCERA Franti&ek,40	Venezuela (According to Hlas Domova of former German Army;lived and Holland respectively)	Rude Pravo Sept 10 1955 Sept 20 1955 member of since 1947 in Germany 
349. KUtfERA Frantisek	Canada	Hlas Domova Jan 10 1955
350. KUCERA Vladimfr,30	Germany,early May 195	5 Rude Pravo June 3 1955 and others
351. KUCHTA Stefan,44	Canada	RF'S Monit.Aug 25 1955
352. KUCHTA Vlastislav,32	Germany July 3 1956	i Hlas -^omova Aug 7 1956
353. EUCHTOVA Vlasta	Germany (Wife of Vlasti mil KUCHTA;nee BRENKOVA	- dtto 
354. KUDELA Jindrich	French Legion	Hlas Domova March 13 and 20 195 6
355. KUDELKA Herbert,34	French Legion (For more according Hlas Domove	details see Jan FISR; his first name is Hubert)
356. KUDRFALEC Bohumil,2	:8 French Region,Franc (Re-redefected in Api MUNICH It.Nos.6311 ar	je PARIS It.No.8869/55 *il 195 6, see please ^ id 6745/56
35 7. KUEHN Josef,35	Brazil	Hlas Domova Sept 18 1956
358. KUKACKA Josef	Australia (Departed from Sydney on Augusi newspaper Hlas Tomovs according to Prace, j	Prace of Oct 5 1955 ; 17 1955,see refiigees 1 Aug 22; his first name, Ls Frantisek)
359. KUTZLER Antonin	Algerien,France	Prace Sept 28; Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
360. KYPTA Sduard,24	Morocco (Former member of French Legj	Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955 on)
361. KYVALA Anton,27	England	Hlas Domova Nov 13 195 6
362. LACKO Josef,27	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 13 195 6
363. LAJHSPERK Frantisek		Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
364. LEHOTAKY Jan,28	Brazil	Background of July 2 1956

[page 65]

Name and Age	Eedefected from: - in:	Source
365. LERAUS Eduard,53	Austria	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955; SALZBURG It.No.10150/55
366. LEVAK Ladislav,26	France	Pravda June 3 1956
367. LEVAKOVA-EGLEROVA	Madeleine, France (French wife of Ladislav LEVAK;and son Gerard)	dtto 
368. LHOTA Otakar	--	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
369. LINHA Antonin,33	Spain, Prance (Escaped West already in 1946) 	Hlas Domova Oct 16 1956 
370. LITVIK Ondrej,26	France	Prace Nov 26 1955; Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
371. LITVIKOVA Susanne	France (French wife of Ondrej LEVAK)	dtto
371. LOMNITZER Stefan	Canada	Hlas Domova Jan 31 1956
373. LUCBAUSROVA Vlasta	Australia (Fiancee of Stefan SABlK;and	Hlas Domova of May '2 195 6 two children)
374. LUCIAN Ján,46	Canada, Sweden	Hlas Domova Fel) 27 1956
375. LUGS Roman	French Legion,Prance	Prace Sept 28; Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
376. LUKAC FrantiSek,43	Austria Sept 12 1955	WELS It.No.8620/55
377. LUKÁS Antonfn,32	Canada Sept 1955	Hlas Domova Sept 20; Prace Oct 26 1955
373. LUKASOVA Irena,23	Canada (Wife of Anto-nin LUKAS nee HOLMANOVA with their children)	dtto they returned together
379. LUKÁSEK Frantisek	Austria,July 1955	Hlas Domova July 26 1955
380. LUKASKOVA (fnu)	Austria (Wife of Fran tiSek LDEXSEK and two	children)	dtto
381. LUKES Bohumil	Germany LSC	Hlas Domova Sept 20 195 6
382. LUKES Stanislav	Brazil, Italy	RPE Monit.July 29 1955
383. LUKUVKA Alojz	Germany,autumn 1955	VIENNA It.No.4632/56
	LUNACEK Frantisek,20	G-ermany May 29 1956	(son of Jan LUNACEK)
355. LUNACEK Jan,59	Germany May 29 1956	Pravda June 3 195 6 MUNICH It.No.7000/56
386. LUNACKOVA Lucie,58	Germany May 29 1956 	(Wife of Jan LUNACEK)
387. LUNACKOVA Marie,22	Germany May 29 1956 	(Daughter of Jan LUftittJEK)
388. LUSTYK Zdenek		Hlas Domova July 10 1956
369. MACALIK Antonin,27	Prance, Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
390. MACEK Frantisek,31	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Dec 20 1955
391. MACH (fnu)	Israel (Allegedly returned together wit	RPE Monit.Oct 9 1955 h his family)
392. MACHA Frantisek,30	Germany,July 19 1955 (In summer 195 6 he re-redefected West,se MUNICH It.No.6144/55; RFE Monit.Aug 3 1956 e MUNICH It.No,6039/56)
393. MAGHACEK Johann,53	Germany,March 15 1956	MUNICH It.No.5510/56
394. MACHLICA FrantiSek	--	Hlas Domova Dec 6 1955
395. MACOUN Josef,25	Germany May 1 1956	MUNICH It.No.5510/56
396. MAHDALIK Pavel	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1956

[page 66]

Name and Age	Redefected from:- in:	Source.
397.	MAJAK Matas	Sweden	Hlas Bomova Jan 10 and March 20 1956
398. MAJSTR Josef,26	Austria - France	Prace Sept 28 1955
399. MAL JindFiSka	France (Returned to the CSR without her 1 sons Milan and Alois)	Hlas Domova Feb 7 195 6 lusband,together with two 
400. MALINA Vilem,22	Austria,July 195 6	WELS It.No.5855/55
401. MALT Josef,31	Austria	WELS It.No.7560/55; Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
402. MAKHAL Josef	- -	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
403. MANYS Christel,29	Germany (German fiancee of ZAHRADNIK	MUNICH It.No.7000/56 M.)
404. MAKTBEK Karel	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955 MUNICH It.No.9597/55 ^
405. MARICKOVA (fnu)	Germany (Wife of Kare MAKISEK,of German 	dtto origin;and two children)
406. MARTINEC Miroslav,23	Canada	Hlas Domova Dec 1 1955
407. MARTINOVSKY Milos,36	Norway,early June	1955 Rude Pravo June 6 Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955 etc.
408. MARUSINEC Jan,28	Austria July 1955	Hlas Domova July 26 1955 SALZBURG It.No.1015 0/55
409. MAEY3KA Alois		MUNICH It.No.147/56
410. MASCUCH Andrej	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955
411. MASTALIR Robert	French Legion	Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955
412. MATEJEC Josef 28	Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 11 195 6
413. MATOUSEK Jaroslav	Italy Aug 195^	ROME It.No.9857/55
414. MAYER or MAJER V clav.	31 French Legion,	Germany MUNICH It.No.8144/55 ; Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
415. MELOTlK Alois	Canada	Prace Oct 5 1955
416. MENOL Bohuslav,27	England (Is waiting for his English wife and child)	Hlas Domova Feb 21 and Sept 4 195 6
417. MESICEK Ladislav,25	Germany	Hlas Domova June 26 195 6
418. MICHALEC Bedrich,51	Germany Feb 2 195 6	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
419. MICKA Jiri,36	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Nov 13 1956
420. MICKAL FrantiSek,24	Switzerland,LSC Germany	Hlas Domova March 6 MUNICH It.No.4728/56
421. MIFKVIC Nikodem,26	France (Escaped West already in 1947)	Hlas Domova Sept 6 and Oct 2 1956
422. MIKA Josef,65	Austria	CSTEKA Se-ot 17 1955; SALZBURG It.No.10150A5
423.	MIKES Frantisek	Germany (Was in possesion of West-German citizenship)	RFE Monit.Feb- If-1956 HLAS Domova FeTb 21 195 6
424. MIKLAS Ladislav, 19	Germany	RFS Monit.June 22 1955
425. MIKOVA Ruzena,20	Germany,end Dec 1955 UNCONFIRMED case)	MUNICH It.No.424/56
426. MIKSATKO Miroslav	--	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955

[page 67]

Name and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
427. MILEROVA Anna	Italy	ROME It.No.9857/56
423. MINARIK Peter,25	French Legion,Prance	Hlas Domova April 2 195 6
429. MISEK V clav,21	Germany,end June 1955	MUNICH It.Nos.5304/55 and 868/56 and others
430. MITTANA Libert,31	French Legion,June 55 Jan FI$SR)	(For more details see
431. MOJffi MartuS	Sweden (Lived in Sweden since 1945)	STOCKHOLM It.No.10466/55
432. MOLIN Ales, 42	Austria,June 1955	RFE Monit.June 24 1955 etc.
433. MORAVEC Bohumil	France	Hlas Domova Feb 7 1956
434. MORAVEC FrantiSek,5	1 Australia	RFE Monit.July 7 1956 Hlas Domova July 10 195 6
435. MORAVEC Step n	Brazil	RFE Monit.Sept 8 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 24 1956
436. MOBAVCOVJt (fnu)	Brazil (Wife of Ste p n MORAVEC; they returned and 3-year-old daughter)	dtto. with 8-year-old son 
437. MOREL Leo,38 .	G-ermany May 1955	Special report No.71/1955 Rude Pravo July 23 195 6
436. MOROF (fnu)	Italy	ROME It.No.9857/55
439. MUDRt Andrej,35	Germany,Aug 27 1955	MUNICH It.No.7606/55 Rude Pravo Sept 7 1955
440. MULACEK Bohuslav,28	France	Hlas Domova Sept 18 195 6
441. MULiWKOViC Jo sette	France (Wife of Bohu-slav MULACEK;nee BORDERIE daughter Isabella)	dtto of French origin;
442. MUELLER Josef,63	Sweden (Ethnic German)	Hlas Dcmova Nov 29 195 6
443. MUELLEBOVJJ Bla^ena	Sweden (Together with daughter.Jo sef MUELLER, her husband follow later.)	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955; and of July 10 195 6 his family one year
444. MUZIK Karel,28	Germany	RFE Monit.Nov 2 1955
445. NAGL Vladimir,23	Germany,end June 1955	Hlas Domova Aug 9 1955
446. NAJMAN Jindrich	Germany	RFE Monit Dec 24 1955
447. NASLEE Earel,30	Brazil	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
448. NAVBATIL Otakar	England	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
449. NAVKiCTILOVJf (fnu)	England (Wife of Otakar NAVRitTIL and two	dtto children)
450. NAVRATIL Vlastislav;	or Vladislav Germany	' RFE Monito0ct 5 and Prace Oct 5 1955
451. NAVRATIL0VA Marie	Germany (Wife of Vlas Slav NAVRATIL;nee GROTZOVA)	iti- dtto 
452. NEDOMA Leopold,29	Germany,end July 1955	MUNICH It.No.6882/55 Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955 etc.
453. NEDOMOVA Eva,23	Germany,June 9 1955 (Wife of Leopold NE-DOMA;she returned with 2-year-old daughter,	MUNICH It.Nos.4789/55 and 871/56 (and others) Rude Pravo of June 17 1955 her husband followed)

[page 68]

Name	and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
454. NEJDL Zdenek	LSC Germany (Has beai in Germany since 1946 989O/56 he had returned where he was arrested Communist agent.)	Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955 ; according to MUNICH It.No. to West Germany again on suspicion of being a
455. NEMCAK J n	Germany (Returned together with his German their child)	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955 fiancee Hannelore and
456. NEMEC Rudolf ,24	Canada	Prace Oct 26 Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
457. NEMECEK Rudolf	--	Hlas Domova Nov 15 1955
456. NEPRAS Emil	Chile	Rude Pravo Nov 25 1955
459. NEPRASOVA (fnu)	Chile (Wife of Emil NEPRAS;they returned daughter)	dtto ^ with their 10-year-old
460. NETUSIL Vaclav,39	Brazil	Prace Sept 28 1955; Background of July 2 195 6
461. NEUMANN Kiroslav,24	. Germany	CETEKA Aug 7 1955
462. NEUMANN Vaclav	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Jan 17 1956
463. NEVRSIL Jan,25	Norway	Hlas Domova Nov.8 1955 BERLIN It.No.7887/55 and SALZBURG It.No.959/56
464. NIKODYM Alois,27	Canada	Prace Oct 26 1955
465. NISTERENKO Viliam	Israel	MUNICH It.4728/56; Hlas Domova Sept 18 1956
466. NOVAK Alois Ing	Prance	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
467. NOVAK Antonin,57	Germany	MUNICH It.Nos.9987 and 10292/55
468. NOVAK Josef	--	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
469. NOVAK Jaromir	Brazil	RFE Monit.Dec 24 1955
470. NOVAKOVA Marta	Brazil (Wife of Jaromir	NOVAK) dtto
471. NOVAK Karel,	Germany	MUNICH It.No.4372/55
472. NOVAK Tadeasz,30	England (Former German soldier,prisoner he has lived since 1946)	Hlas Domova March 6 195 6 of war in England where 
473. NOVOSEDLlK Stefan	France	Rude Pravo Sept 26 and Lud Oct 21 1955
474. NOVOTNY Frantisek,21	Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
475. NOVOTNY Juraj,27	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
476. NOVOTNY Jiri	Australia	Cs.Svet Feb 9 1956
477. NOVOTNY (fnu)	Venezuela	MUNICH It.No.8046/56
478. NOVOTNA (fnu)	Venezuela (Wife of (fnu) NOVOTNY;they returned	dtto to the CSR with two children)
479. OKIJLIAR Emil	Australia	RFS Monit.Oct 4 1955
480. ONDRAK Karel,41	Germany	CETEKA July 8 1955 RFE Monit.Jan 3 1956

[page 69]

Name and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source 
481. ONDRUT5 J n	Germany	Hlas Domova Kov 29 1955
482. OPAVSKY Pavel,22	Germany	RFE Monit.Sept 6 1955
483. ORAVA Frantisek,23	Germany,Dec 30 1955	Hlas Domova Feb 7 1955 MUNICH It.No.7000/56
484. OSLEJSEK Antonin	Germany	MUNICH It.No.671/56
485. PACHR Zdenek,21	Germany Aug 9 1955	MUNICH It.No.6882/55 Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955
486. PADEVEY Frantisek,21	Canada	Hlas Domova March 20 1956
487. PALACKY Jiri,27	Germany	MUNICH It.Nos.1292,2448/56
488. PANSK Jan,34	Australia	Hlas Domova March 15 1956
489. PANEK Karel,28	Germany,Jan 28 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
490. PANGRAC Miroslav,26	Brazil	Hlas Domova Dec 20 195 6
491. PANKUCH Jano,30	Austria	Hlas Domova May 15 1956
492. PANSKT Ladislav,35	Austria (He also used the name Ladi-slav MEDEKjreturned this Austrian fiancee	RFS Monit.Nov 1 Hlas Domova Oct 16 1956 o the CSR together with Elisabeth ZIKUDA)
493. PAPACEK Josef, 34	Germany,July 1955	Lidova Demokracie Aug 4 Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
494. PAPACK0YA Libuse	Germany (Wife of Jose	f PAPASEK) dtto
495. PARA Dalibor,35	Germany,Sept 2 1955 (He also used the name Frantisek BARAT)	Prace Sept 28 Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955 -MUNICH It.No.8413/55
496. PASTIERIK Stefan,34	French Legion (For d	.etails see Jan FlSER)
497. PATEk Josef, 26	Australia (He departed from Sydney on Aug paper Hlas Domova of	_RFE Monit.Oct 4 1955 ; 17,see the exile news-Aug 22 1955)
498. PAVLASKOVA Drahomira	Austria April 1956	Oesterreichische Nachrichten of July 18 195 6
499. PAVLIK Josef	Germany	RFE Monit.Dec 24 1955
500. PAVLOVSKY Josef	Austria July 1955	WELS It.No.6494/55
501. PAVLOVSKY Vladislav	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 4 1955
502. PECHR Jaroslav	Australia	Vecerni Praha of Dec 30 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 17 1956
503. PSCHROVÁ (fnu)	Australia (Wife of Jaroslav PEGHR and three children)	dtto 
504. PEKLO Antonin,49	Australia	Hlas Domova June 13 1956
505. PELAN Zdenek,25	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
506. PELANOVA Tamara	Germany (Wife of Zdenek PELAN;of foreign oriGIN; 	 and one child)	dtto
507. PELIKiN Josef,30	Germany,Canada (According to MUNICH family lived in Stuttgart/ they had returned to	Hlas Domova April 2 1956 It.No.5510/56 he and his Germany from where the CSR on March 21 1956)
508. PELIKANOVA Helena,22	Germany,Canada (Wife of Josef PELIKAN; children:Irena,Emilie	Hlas Domova Apr 2 195 6 they returned with three Helena)

[page 70]

Name and Age	Redefected from:-in:	Source
509. PESKA Jaroslav,	Austria	Hlas Domova Aug 16 1955
510. PETRMICHL Jiri,26	Germany June 12 1955	MUNICH It.No.7930/55
511. PFEIFFER Vratislav, 32	Germany,Oct 11 1955	MUNICH It.No.9595/55
512. PlCHA Antonin,48	Germany Nov 1 1955	MUNICH It.No.9598/55
513. PICMAUS Karel,27	Germanv	Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
514. PIKULIK Stefan,24	LSC Germany Feb 1 1956	Hlas Domova March 6 1956 MUNICH It.No.7000/56
515. PILARIK Jozef,19	Switzerland	Prace Aug 27 Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955
516. PISEK Josef,25	French Legion,France	PARIS It.No.8869/55
517. PIVOVARNIK Josef	Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
518. PIVOVARNIKOVA Margarete,	Germany (Wife of Josef PIVOVARNIK: nee and two children)	dtto Kraemer,of German origin;
519. PLASEK Josef	French Legion	Rude Pravo Aug 11 1955
520. PLAVEC Vaclav	LSG Germany	Prace Sept 28 1955
521. PODZIMEK Jaromfr,26	i Australia	RFE Monit Oct 9 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 10 1956
	POLAKOVIC Baltazar,	26 Germany	Hlas Domova July 10 1956
523. POSUSTA Josef,about	40 Canada	Prace Oct 5 1955 LINZ It.No.9859/55; SALZBURG It.No.8047/56
524. POTISSIL Karel,30	Germany Nov 1 1955	MUNICH It.No.9598/55
525. POTICHA Zlatomir,26	i French Legion (For 	details see Jan FISER)
526. POVA Karel	USA	Hlas Domova Oct 11 1955 Feb 7 1956
527. POVINEC Jan,44	Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 4 1955
528. POVOLNT Bohumil,48	Germany,end June 1955	i MUNICH It.No.5304/55
529. PKIBYL Alois	Canada,in 1955	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
530. PKIKRYL Rudolf,34	Belgium,France,July 11,55	Hlas Domova July 26 19S5 
PARIS It.No.8869/55
531. PRINZ Jan,27	Germany,June 11 1955	MUNICH It.No.7930/55 ^ RFE Monit.June 22 1955
532. PRIWITZER Josef ,87	Germany,March 8 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
533. PROCHAZKA Frantisek	,39 Germany,June 1956 (He escaped in Feb.1956)	 MUNICH It.No.5994/56 
534. PROKOP Josef	France	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955
535. PULKSRT Jan,28	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
536. PYTEL Karel	Australia (His arrival in the GSR UNCONFIRMED even to da1	-Australian paper Hlas Domova of Nov 14 1955 ;e)
537. RABlNitK Vaclav, 30	Germany,June 13 1955	MUNICH It.No.7930/55 RFS Monit.June 28 1955
538. RAIS Karel, about 25	Morocco,in 195 6	Hlas Domova Jan 17,Feb 28,5 6
539. RAJSIGL Jaroslav,28	Germany,July 9 1955	Special report No.76/1955
540. RAJT Josef,26	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Nov 29 195 6
541. RANFLSR Jiff,28	LSG Germany,in 1955	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955

[page 71]

Name and Age	Redefected from: -in:	Source
542.RANFLEROVÁ Valerie	Germany (Wife of Ji-ri RANPLER; of Polish	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955 origin;and son Jiri)
543.cRASKA Antonin	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955 Rude Pravo June 6 1956
544. REINDL Karel,25	--	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
545. REISINGER Miroslav,	30 Germany,Italy	Rude Pravo Aug 11 Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955
546. REITSPIESS Josef,28	Germany,Sept 15 1955	MUNICH It.No.8144/55 Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
547. REZNICEK Jan	Australia,Aug 1955	MUNICH It.No.144/56
	RICHTER Caesar,56	Germany,April 28 1956	MUNICH It.No.5510/56
549. RICHTSR Hynek, 22	Germany,Apr 1956 (Son of Caesar RICHTER Sept 11 1956) SALZBURG It.No.9713/56 he re-redefected on
550. RICHTEROVÁ Marie,53	Germany (Wife of Caesar	RICHTER)
551. RIGHTR Erich	French Legion	RFE Monit.Aug 15 1955
552. RICHTR Josef,29	Germany Jan 25 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
553. RICKA Frantisek,27	Germany,Dec 22 1955 (Repatriated from West German prison)	MUNICH It.No.996/56 Hlas Domova Jan 27 1956
55 4. ROJEK Viliam	French Legion,Prance	Hlas Domova Aug 21 1956
555. ROUBAL Jaroslav,31	Prance	PARIS It.No.8869/55
556. ROUBAL Josef ,5 6	Norway	RFE Monit.Aug 7 1955 BERLIN It.No.7887/55 Hlas Domova Jan 24 1956
557. RUBAS Ladislav	Germany	RFE Monit.Dec 24 1955
558. RUBASOVA Helma	Germany (Wife of Ladislav	RUBAS) dtto
559. RYBAR Michal,36	Germany	RFS Monit.Aug 19 1955
560. RYBARSKY Michal	Germany	SALZBURG It.No.8257/55
561. RYNES Jaroslav	Prance	Rude Pravo July 8 1955
562. SABATKA Bartolomej	,20 Austria	Hlas Domova Sept 6 1955
563. SABIK Stefan	Australia (See also LUCBAUEROVJC,his fiancee)	Hlas Domova May 2 1956 
564. SAIK Ludvik,27	French Legion (For	details see Jan FISER)
665 SAFARIK Jaroslav,33	Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 2 1956
566 SAFARIKOVA Agnes	Germany (Wife of Jaroslav SAFAHIK;nee RENDEL; of children)	dtto German origin; and two
567. SALOUN Jiri ,25	Norway	Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
568. SAROCH Josef,56	Austria	Hlas Domova Dec 6 1955
569. SCHAPPNER Vojtech 25	French Legion (Captured in Vietnam)	RFE Monit.Oct 18 Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955
570. SCHEMOCKOVA-CEKROVA	Zdenka Canada 1955	Hlas Domova Kay 26 1956
571. SCHICK Jan	Germany,June 1955	MUNICH It.No.6245/55 Rude Pravo July 9 1955
572. SCHINDLER Bedrich,66	Austria,Germany (He is of German origin)	Hlas Domova June 13 1956 

[page 72]

Name and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
573. SCHISLER Frantisek,	18	--	Prace July 5 1955
574. SCHMIDT Oldrich,27	Germany June 22 1955	MUNICH It.No.6493/55
575. SCHNEIDER Karel,35	Germany,May 28 1955	MUNICH It.No.45 61/55 EFE Monit.June 11 1955 etc.
576. SCHWABZ Anton,28	Switzerland	Hlas Domova July 10 195 6
577. SCHWAHZ Herbert,29	England (Lived abroad since 1945;ret mother,born OPITZ)	Hlas Domova April 2 195 6 ;urned together with his
578. SEDIVEC Veroslav,30	Germany,July 1956	Klas Domova Aug 7 195 6
579. SEDIVCOVA Hildegard	,27 Germany (Wife of slav $EDIVEC:nee Z0P5 two children)	VSro- dtto ';of German origin;and
580.	SEDLACEK Jaromir	Germany,Aug 22 1955	MUNICH It.Nos.7326/55 and ^r 4208/5 6
581. SEDLACEK Jiri ,25	New Zeland. (Escaped when 16)	CETEKA Jan 20; Hlas Domova Jan 24 and 31 1956
582. SEDLACEK Josef ,28	LSC Germany,Feb 5 195	6 MUNICH It.No.5510/56
563. SEDMAK Aloz,29	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Apr 17 1956
564. SEMORAD Miroslav,34	Germany,Aug 2 1955	MUNICH It.No.7930/55
585. SERCL Antonin,29	Canada	Prace of Oct 26 1955
586. SERCLOVA Helena	Canada (Wife of Antor SERCL;nee KRYGIEROVA; Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955)	Lfn dtto of Polish origin;see also
587. SESTAK Jindrich,24	French Legion,Belgiun	Hlas Domova Feb 27 195 6
588. SIKEL Frantisek,28	Brazil	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
589. SIKORA Jiri or Jan,	24 Germany (Escaped from the CSR in 1945 when 14-year-old)	Prace Sept 21 Hlas Domova Sept 27 1955
590. SIM^SEK Stanislav,28	French Legion	RFE Monit.Oct 18 Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955 SALZBURG It.No.4152/56
591. SIMANEK Bohumil,29	Germany,Austria	Hlas Domova Feb 7 1956
592. SIMEK Eduard	Germany	Hlas Domova June 22 1955
593. SIMONIC Frantisek	Germany	Prace Dec 25 1955
594. SIMONICOVÁ Dagmar	Germany (Wife of Frantisek SIMONIC; and	Hlas Domova Jan 3 195 6 her son Zdenek)
595. SIMOVIC Frantisek,	Ernest,23 Germany, Sept 12 1955 t,He re-rede-fected on July 26 1956 It.No.8047/5 6;	MUNICH It.No.7931/55 Rude Pravo Sept 27 1955 see please SALZBURG
596. SIHDELAR V clav	- -	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
597. SINDLER Jaro slav	Germany (He has been sentenced to four years West Germany:repatriated	MUNICH It.No.9419/56 imprisonment in from prison)
598. SIRANEC Frantisek,28	Germany	Prace of July 5 1955
599. SIROTNAK Stefan	Belgium	Hlas Domova Dec 6 1955
600. SISKA Andrej,39	Argentine (Abroad since 1945 )	Hlas Domova July 10 Lud July 8 1956

[page 73]

Name and Age	Redefected from: -in:	Source
601. SKACEL Eduard	Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 11 1956
602. SKXLOVA Jirina,22	Germany	RFE Monit.June 11 1955
603. SKLXDANY Frantisek	or V clav Germany	Hlas "Domova Jan 17 1956 MUNICH It.No.871/56
604. KLADANA Marie	Germany (Wife of V clav	SKLADANY) dtto
605. SKODA Jan,30	Germany Aug 1955	CSTEKA Aug 12 1955
606. SKODOVA (fnu)	Germany (Wife of Jan	SKODA) dtto
607. SKRIVAKEK Frantisek	,44 ISC Germany	MUNICH It.No.10391/56
608. SLADEK Josef ,30	French Legion,France	RFE Monit.Aug 15 1955 PARIS It.No.8869/55
609. SLAVIK Jan,27	Morocco,France	Hlas Domova Feb 7 and Feb 21 195 6
610. SLOVENCIK Jan,29	Germany Apr 13 1956	MUNICH It.Nos.5510 and 7000/5 6
611. SMAZ Jan,27	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Oct 18 1955
612. SMETANA Josef	France (His French wife and two children	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955 will allegedly follow)
613. SMOLIK Vladimfr,34	Germany,June 1955	MUNICH It.No.5304/55
614. SMORANC Josef ,35 ,	LSC Germany (He has lived in Germany sine	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955 1946)
615. SOCHOR Karel,31	Canada	Hlas Domova Deo 6 1955
616. SOLSANSKT Ernest ,5 2	! USA	Hlas Domova Dec 6 1955
617. SONSKY Miroslav,48	Germany May 16 1956	MUNICH It.Nos.5510 and 7000/56
618. SOPAUSCHKE Otto,25	Germany (Ethnic German)	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
619. SOUKUP Josef,33	Germany (He escaped West in 1947,returned again; his German wife	Hlas Domova Oct 2 1956 to the CSR,defected once lives in Serb)-
620. SPACEK Jan,25	Germany	MUNICH It.5014/56 Hlas Domova June 13 and June 26 1956
621. SPACIL V clav,51	Germany,October 1956	Rude Pravo Oct 28 1956 Hlas Domova Nov 29 1956
622. SPACILOVA Bozena	Germany (Wife of V clav SPACIL; FREBTOVA;	dtto and four children)
623. SPANIK Vojtech,26	England,July 1955	Hlas Domova July 19,Oct 18,56
624. SPICKA Hugo,karel,25	Australia (Ethnic German)	Hlas Domova Oct 30 1956
625.	HPISKA K.	(Dennounced himself as a spy;registered as	Rude Pravo Oct 28 1956 a redefector)
626. SRBECKY Zdenek,28	Germany,July 1 1955	MUNICH It.No.5559/55
627. SROTYR Premysl,35	France	Prace Oct 11 1955
628. SROTYROVA Antoinette	France (Nee VERGNAUD; French origin; wife of	of dtto Premysl sROTYR)
629. STAN15K (fnu) about	25 Sweden,early 1956	VIENNA It.No.8371/56
630. STANICEK Josef,22	Sweden (Escaped West when 15-year-old)	Hlas Domova May 26 1956
631. STANTEJSKY Jaroslav	Belgium,Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955
632. STASTNY Earel,24	Italy Aug 1955	RFE Monit.Aug 15 1955 ROME It.No.VI/2/44l/K/3

[page 74]

Name and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source 
633. STAUBSR Josef,20	LSC Germany	Rude Pravo July 9 1955
634. STBHLIK Jaroslav	Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 13 1955
635. STEHLlKOVA (fnu)	Germany (Wife of Jaro STEHLlK;and seven children Eduard, Julie, Regina,	slav dtto Vaclav,Frantisek, Karel and Vlasta)
636. STEHLIK Martin,20	England	Hlas Domova July 10 1956
637. STEKR Karel,29	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova March 6 1956
638. STETINA Frantisek	Germany Sept 17 1955	MUNICH It.No.8412/55 and SALZBURG It.No.8047/56
639. STRAKA Jan	French Legion,Vietnam	Hlas Domova July 5 1955
640. STRAKOVA Zdena	Israel (Returned to the GSR with her daug	RFE Monit.Oct 18 1955 hter)
641. STREJtfEK V clav, 36	Brazil	Hlas Domova Dec 20 1955 
642. STREJCKOVA Zdenka	Brazil (Wife of V clav nee HOLCAKOVA and their	STREJCEK; dtto son)
643. STRNAD Stanislav	Norway,Nov 9 1955	Hlas Domova Nov 29 1955
644. STHTBEK Richard,22	Austria,July 1955	Rude Pravo July 22 1955 SALZBURG It.No.10150/55
645. STRYSKOVJS Drahoslava,	21 Austria (Wife of STRYCKEK;and one-year-old	Richard dtto daughter)
646. STUDENT Ludvik,24	Germany, July 1956	MUNICH It.No.7455/56
647. SUCHY Frantisek,19	Austria (Was 15 when he escaped West)	Rude Pravo Sept 26 Hlas Domova Oct 25,Nov 8,55
648. SUHAJ Viliam,28	French Legion,France	Prace of Oct 5 1955
649. SULC Stanislav,28	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955 and Jan 24 1956
650. SULC Stefan	Germany	Hlas Domova Fe"b 14 195 6
651. SULCOViC Helen	Germany (Wife of Stef	Hlan SULC) dtto
652. SUSTEROVA Anna,33	Germany,Oct 25 1955	MUNICH It.No.9598/55
653. SVAB Andrej, 32	Canada	Hlas Domova Apr 17 1956
654. SVACINA Jan,32	?, in 1955	MUNICH It.No.10957/56
655. SVASTA Ladisilav	Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
656. SVIHLIK Rudolf ,26	Germany	Rude Pravo June 17 1955
657. SVOBODA Frantisek	Germany Sept 1955	MUNICH It.No.875 6/55 SALZBURG It.No.4152/56
658. SVOBODA Karel	Germany	Hlas Domova June 22 1955
659. SVOBODA MiroSlav,3"	j Austria,Sept 1955 (According to Svo-bodne Slovo of June 24	Hlas Domova Oct 25, Nov 29 1955 and of Jan 3 1956 1956 sentenced to prison)
660. SVOBODA Rudolf,42	Germany	HAMBURG It.No.5125/55 RFE Monit.June 11 1955 etc.
661. SVOBODA Rudolf,35	French Legion,May 1956	Prace May 20 and Hlas Domova May 26 1956
662. SVOBODA V clav,46	Brazil	Background of July 2 1956
663. SVOBODOVA Bozena.58 68.	Norway (Nee VITTMAJEROVA(	Hlas Domova May 29 CETEEA May 19 1956
664. SYCHRAVA Lev Dr. England,	Dec 22 1955	RFE Monit.Dec 23 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 24 1956 etc.

[page 75]

Name and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
665. SYKORA Jan	- -	RFE Monit.Aug 19 1955
666. TAKAC Vojtech,41.	Germany,Apr 25 195 6 (see below)	Hlas Domova May 15 1956 MUNICH It.Nos.4610,5510/56
667. TESLT Josef (phon?)	probably French Legi	.on RFE Monit.Aug 15 1955
668. TICHY Blahoslav,23	Germany,Dec 1955	MUNICH It.424/56
669. TICHY Bohdan,35	England (He returned to the CSR together Miss M.L.HARVEY)	Hlas Domova Sept 4 1956 with his English fiancee
670. TIGHT FrantiSek	Norway	Hlas Domova Dec 20 1955
671. TODT Vaclav	Austria,France,Germany	Hlas Domova Nov 8 1955
672. TONDERA Jaroslav	probably Vietnam	Hlas Domova June 22 1955
673. TRLICA Karel	Australia	Hlas Domova Dec 29 1955
674. TRPISOVSKY Ladislav	,33 England	Hlas Domova June 26 RFE Monit.July 7 1956
675. TRTMPICH Jiri ,25	Australia	Hlas Domova Oct 30 1956
676. TRUMPICHOVA Gwenda	Australia (Wife of Jiri TRUMPICH; nee NELSON,	dtto of Australian origin)
677. TUREK Zdenek,3O	Germany,June 1955	MUNICH It.No.5304/55
673. TURNA JLlius or Jan	,21 LSC Germany	RFE Monit.July 28 Rude Pravo Sept 26 Hlas Domova Oct 11 1955
679. TYK Karel,48	Germany,Jan 3 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
680. UHLER Antonin	Austria	Pravda June 3 1956
681. UHLER Frantisek	Austria	Pravda of June 3 1956
682. UJCIK Josef,59	Norway .	Hlas Domova Oct 18 and Rude Pravo Sept 26 1955
683. ULRYGH Jindrich	French Legion May 1956	Prace May 20 Hlas Domova June 13 1956
684. URBANOVA Ruzna	Sweden	Lud July 8 1956
685. VACHEL Josef,40	France (Escaped West already in 1947)	Hlas Domova Oct 25 and Dec 20 1955
686. VAGA& Frantisek,24	Germany,June 2 1955	MUNICH It.No.4628/55 and RFE Monit.June 11 1955
687. VALCHAR Vladislav,24	Canada	Hlas Domova Jan 10 195 6
688. VALS Frantisek,34	Canada	Prace Oct 26 1955
689. VANCO Viktor,27	Germany, March 25 1956	 
690. VANEK FrantiSek,31	Canada	RFE Monit.Nov 2 1955
691. VANHA Antonin	Germany	Rude Pravo July 12 1956
692. VASA Vlastimil	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Jan 3 1956
693. VAtVRA Karel,47	Germany,Feb 18 1956	MUNICH Item Nos.5510,7000/56
694. VARVRIN Jiri	France	RFE Monit.Dec 24 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 3 and Feb 27 1956
695. VAVRINOVA Gizela 	France (Wife of Jiri and four children) (194O to 1945 soldier	VAVRIN; dtto of the Hungarian Army)

[page 76]

Name and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
696. VEJMSLKOVA Dagmar,26	Germany,Sept 12 1955 (With her one-year-old son)	RFE Monit.Sept 14 and 27 1955; MUNICH It.Nos.7931/55 and. 1291/56
697. VELIKI Eva,30	Brazil (Nee MARKOVJt; returned to the CSR probably without her	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955 and June 26 195 6 and Jan 17 1956 husband and her two children)
698. VSRSSlK Ervfn,30	Germany Jan 2 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
699. VESELY Jindrich,34	(Served as informer; was found shot in Cesk‚ 1956; UNCONFIRMED case)	VIENNA It.No.8640/56 Budejovice on Aug 25 
700. VSVERKA Ladislav 0r	Stanislav,25 Austria (Returned to the CSR without his wife and	WELS It.No.7560/55 and SALZBURG It.No.10150/55 child)
701. VICENlK Jaroslav	Germany	MUNICH It.No.146/56
702. VINCALEK (fnu)	LSG G-ermany	Hlas Domova Aug 9 1955
703. VINTA Zbynek,26	French Legion,.France	CETEKA Aug 7 1955 PARIS It.No.8869/55
704. VITEK Viliam	France	RFE Monit Dec 24 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 3 1956
705. VITKOVX Goergette	France (French wife 	of Viliam VITEK) dtto
706. VLACH Ladislav	G-ermany, "Dec 1955	MUNICH It.No.1147/56
707. VLSEK Silvestr,48	Germany	Hlas Domova Aug 21 1956
708. VLttGK Josef,27	Germany	Hlas Domova Feb 7 1956
709. VLE Karel,34	Germany Feb 25 1956	Hlas Domova March 13 1956 MUNICH It.No.5510/56
710. VOJKAROVjC Marie		MUNICH It.No.147/56
711. VOJTXSEK Vladimir	Germany	RFE Monit.May 22 1955
712. VOLJtK Franti&ek	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
713. VOLKOVSKIJ Dionisit	is IngDr. USA	RFE Monit.July 7 and Trace Oct 14 1956
714. VONDROUS Josef,32	LSC Germany	Hlas Domova Dec 1 1956
715. VOTAVA Adolf,3 3	Germany Jan 20 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56
716. VOTAVOVA Marie,32	Germany (Wife of Adolf and two children)	VOTAVA dtto
717. VRACOVSKY Ladislav,	24 Australia (He departed from Australia ing to the latter;	Hlas Domova Sept 19 1955 on Sept 12 1955 accord-UNCONFIRMED case)
718. WEIMANNOVA (or	VAJMANOVA) Jana Norway (A widow;she returned to the CSR with her	CSTEKA Nov 25 1955 Hlas Domova Jan 17 1956 10-year-old daughter)
719. WEINTRITTOVA Anna	Norway,Sweden	Hlas Domova Nov 1 1955
720. WEISNEBACHER Gustav,	33 Bra ail	Hlas Domova Dec 20 1955
721. WIENER Karel,28	French Legion (For details	see Jan FISER)
722. WINTER Cestmir,21	Brazil	Background report of July 2 1956
723. WOJACZEK FraNTISEK,31	French Legion	Hlas Domova Jan 17 1956

[page 77]

Name and Age	Redefected from: - in:	Source
724. 2ABKA Stefan,51	Germany,July 6 1955	MUNICH It.No.7930/55
725 ZAHOR Jan, 18	Austria,end June 1955	MUNICH It.No.7215/55 SALZBURG It.No.10156/55
726. ZAHORCKOVA Alzbeta	,33 Germany (Returned with her two children)	RFE Monit.Oct 18 1955 
727. ZAHRADKA Josef	Canada	Hlas Domova Nov 22 1955 and May 15 1956
728. ZAHRADKA Ludek,22	French Legion	Rude Pravo July 10 1955
729. ZAHRADKOVA (fnu)	Canada (Wife of Josef	ZAHRADKA) dtto
730. ZAHRADNIK miroslav,	27 Germany Feb 23 195 (Returned to the CSR with his German fiancee	6 MUNICH It.Nos.6747 and 7000/56 Christel MANYS)
731. ZAKOSTELECKY Karel,	27 French Legion	Hlas Domova Oct 30 1956
732. ZALES Milan,25	Germany	Hlas Domova Oct 2 1956
733. ZAPLETAL Ladislav,30	Italy,Nov 6 1955	ROME It.No.9832/55 CETEKA Nov 25 Hlas Domova Dec 20 1955
734. 2MRSKY Franti&ek	Germany	MUNICH It.No.150/56
735. XBiCRSKY Kamil,26	England,early 1956	Hlas Domova Apr 2 1956
736. ZECHOVSK? Josef,about	40 Germany,end July1955	MUNICH It.No.6821/55
737. 2IGA Vojtech,32	French Legion,France	Hlas Domova Oct 25 1955
733. ZIMA Josef,31	Italy	ROME It.No.5406/55 Hlas Domova Sept 20 1955
739. ZNAMENACEK V clav	--	MUNICH It.No.147/56
740. ZOBIN Antonfn	Germany	MUNICH It.No.9987/55 Hlas Domova Oet 25 1955
741. ZOUBEK Karel,Jan,54	Australia	Hlas Domova Dec 11 1956
742. ZOUBKOVA Yvonne-Claire	Australia (Wife of ZOUBEK;of Australian	Karel Jan dtto origin)
743. ZOUHAR Jaroslav,34	Germany,Feb 22 1956	MUNICH It.No.7000/56

[page 78]

Special Cases of Redefection:
KASAL Karel	Germany	Remark: They arrived in Czechoslovakia toward the end of June 1956, together with their son
KASAL0VJC-BUSOVA Helena	Germany	Karel; all of them are British subjects. As it follows from the official sources, they were granted visitors visas. See RFE Monit.of July 9 and 10 1956 and Prace of September 21 1956 which has reported their return to the West.
SYKORA Anton	Germany,Oct.55	Remark: After having crossed illegally the West German-CS border he was ?? arrested processed as a redefector. In Pebruary 1956 he escaped West.
THUN VON HOHENSTEIN Heinz	Heinrich, 26 Germany	Remark: According to Radio PRAGUE of September 11 1956: Former resident of the CSR, he asked for asylum in the CSR.
End

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