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TITLE:             An Annotated Survey of Independent Movements in Eastern Europe
BY:                Jiri Pehe
DATE:              1989-6-13
COUNTRY:           (n/a)
ORIGINAL SUBJECT:  RAD Background Report/100

--- Begin ---


RAD Background Report/100
(Eastern Europe)
13 June 1989


by Jiri Pehe [**]

Introduction: Since November 1988, when this
survey first appeared, civic groups and
political movements have appeared in almost all
East European countries. In some cases, the
membership, leading personalities, and even
objectives of the older groups have changed. In
Poland, Hungary, and the Baltic Republics some
of the independent groups have been officially
registered. This updated version of the survey
reflects changes in status and work and gives
the names, objectives, membership, publications,
and leading personalities of all the independent
groups in Eastern Europe about which there is
sufficient information.

* * *


The Association To Support Vienna '89 {Druzhestvo za
Podkrepa na Viena '89). Founded: January 1989. Membership:
Details are unknown, but it is thought to consist entirely of

[*] This is an updated version of Jiri Pehe, "independent Movements in Eastern
Europe," RAD" Background Report/228 (Eastern Europe), Radio Free Europe
Research, 17 November 1988.

[**] Written in cooperation with Stephen Ashley (Bulgaria); Tom lives (Estonia);
Barbara Donovan (German Democratic Republic); Petronela Gaal (Hungary);
Dzintra Bungs (Latvia); Saulius Girnius (Lithuania); Halina Koscia, Witold
Pronobis and Anna Pomian (Poland); and Vlac. Socor (Romania).

This material was prepared for the use of the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

[page 2]

RAD BR/100

ethnic Turks. Objectives: To monitor Bulgarian observance of
the 1989 Vienna CSCE Agreement and to campaign for civil rights
and oppose the assimilation campaign. Leading personality. Avni
Aliev Veliev and Ismet Emrullahov (both are from Dzhebel and
were deported from Bulgaria in May 1989).

Citizens' Initiative {Grazhdanska Initsiativa). Founded:
Exact date unknown. Estimated Membership: 30 to 40 (all in the
Ruse area). Objectives: The group functions, in effect, as a
local branch of the Independent Association for the Defense of
Human Rights, whose objectives it shares. It is not known
whether the group has managed to survive the arrest of its
leaders in early 1989. Leading Member: Lyubomir Sobadzhiev.

The Committee for Religious Rights, Freedom of Conscience,
and Spiritual Values (Komitet za Zashtita na Religioznite Prava,
Svobodata na Savestta, i Duhovnite Tsenosti). Founded: 9 March
1989 in Veliko Tarnovo following local protests against the
banishing to a monastery of the popular parish priest Father
Hristofor Sabev. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To campaign
for an end to political interference in Church affairs and
religious life; to promote religious education, publishing, and
broadcasting; to campaign for the legalization of religious
charitable work; and to promote religious tolerance in Bulgaria.
Leading personalities: Hristofor Sabev (Chairman), Petar Kanev
Petrov (Secretary), Petar Penkov, Vasil Tsvetkov, Stiliyan
Nikolov, Nadezhda Ilieva, and Dechka Trifonova. Father Blagoy
Topuzliev, who was expelled from Bulgaria in March 1989, acts as
the committee's foreign spokesman.

The Democratic League for the Defense of Human Rights
{Demokratichnata Liga za Zashtita na Pravata na Choveka).
Founded: December 1988. Estimated Membership: By May 1989 it
had recruited several hundred members, largely but not
exclusively from the ethnic Turkish community. It is not known
how many were expelled from the country in May and June 1989
following the protests in eastern Bulgaria. Its founders are
confident that the league will survive by recruiting increasing
numbers of ethnic Bulgarians. Objectives: To campaign for human
rights in Bulgaria, to oppose the assimilation of the Moslem
minorities and the repression of Islamic practices and customs,
and to work toward the restoration of democratic principles in
public life. Leading personalities: Mustafa Yumerov (Chairman),
Sabri Iskenderov (Secretary), and Ali Ormanliev (Secretary).
All three were expelled to Turkey in May 1989. The new
leadership has not yet made itself publicly known.

Eco-Glasnost'. Founded: Probably in the first quarter of
1989 in Sofia. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To campaign for
the implementation of laws to protect the environment and to
promote glasnost' on ecological issues. Leading personalities:
Dimcho Savov and Petar Slabakov.

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The Friends of Sofia's Architecture (Priyatelite na
Sofiyskata arhitektura). Founded: The date unknown. Membership:
Unknown, Objectives: The conservation of historic buildings in
Sofia. Leading Figure: Stefan Prodev.

The Independent Association for the Defense of Human Rights
in Bulgaria (Nezavisimoto Druzhestvo za Zashtita na Choveshkite
Prava v Bulgariya). Founded: 16 January 1988 after six Bulgarian
dissidents had sent an appeal to the CSCE Conference in Vienna,
protesting Bulgaria's poor human rights record. Estimated
membership: Over 1,000, of whom more than half are ethnic Turks.
Objectives: To monitor Bulgaria's human rights record; to
collect information on political prisoners and other cases of
abuse of human rights; to campaign for legal reforms, including
the abolition of the laws against "antisocialist propaganda"? to
oppose the forced assimilation of the ethnic Turkish minority;
and to win registration as a legal association. Leading
personalities: Iliya Minev (Chairman), Petar Manolov
(Secretary), Dimitar Tomov, Mariana Zlateva, and Anton
Zapryanov. Several of the Association's founders, including
Eduard Genov and Tseko Tsekov, have been expelled from Bulgaria
since October 1988. Manolov was forced to leave in May 1989 but
is continuing to act as Secretary.

The Independent Committee for the Protection of the
Environment (Nezavisimiyat Komitet za Zashtita na Okolnata
Sreda; popularly known as the Ruse Committee). Founded: 8 March
1988 at a mass meeting in Sofia that followed street protests in
Ruse on 10 February 1988. Claimed membership: 200. Objectives:
To protect the environment of the city of Ruse, particularly
against chlorine pollution from the Soviet-built plant at
Giurgiu (Romania). Leading personalities: Georgi Mishev,
Svetlin Rusev, Neshka Robeva, Sonya Bakish Todorova, and Dimitar

The Independent Discussion Club for the Support of
Glasnost' and Perestroika {Nezavisimiyat Diskusionen Klub za
Podkrepa na Glasnost i Preustroystvoto). Founded: 3 November
1988 at a public meeting at Sofia University. Membership: The
club does not have a membership as such but claims in excess of
150 informal participants. Objectives: To conduct a free public
debate on the major problems facing Bulgaria and to promote the
BCP's alleged policies of glasnost' and perestroika. Leading
personalities: Mariya Boykikeva, Blaga Dimitrova, Zhelyu Zhelev,
Koprinka Chervenkova, Aleksey Sheludko, Georgi Velichkov, and
Colonel Boris Spasov.

The Independent Union of Catholics in Bulgaria (Nezavismoto
druzhenie na Katolitsite v Bulgaria). Founded: Date unknown; the
group is thought to be based in Plovdiv. Membership: Unknown;
the group is thought to have links with the Independent
Association for the Defense of Human Rights and the Independent
Committee for Religious Rights. Leading Personality: Aleksandar

[page 4]

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The Moslem Initiative Group (Musulmanska Initsiativna
Grupa). Founded: 15 April 1989 by ethnic Turkish members of the
Independent Association for the Defense of Human Rights.
Estimated Membership: 35 to 40, all from the Kazanlak area in
central Bulgaria. Objectives: To campaign for human rights and
religious freedom in Bulgaria and to oppose the national
assimilation campaign. Leading personalities: Ramadan Runtov
(Chairman), Ibryam Runtov, Ferat Runtov, and Hyusein Adzherlov.

The Party of the Green Masses (Partiyata na Zelenata Masa).
Founded: In the final quarter of 1988 in Vratsa. Membership:
Unknown but thought to be extremely small. Objectives: To lay
the basis for an independent Greens party along the lines of
those in Western Europe and Slovenia and to campaign for
democracy and human rights in Bulgaria. Leading personalities:
Stefan Cholakov (Chairman) and Rumen Tsankov (Secretary) were
expelled from Bulgaria in April 1989.

Support (Podkrepa). Founded: 11 February 1989 in Plovdiv.
Membership: About 50, of whom 10 to 15 are also members of the
Independent Association for the Defense of Human Rights.
Objectives: To become an independent nationwide trade union for
the scientific, technical, cultural, and educational
professions. Support works in close co-ordination with the
Independent Association for the Defense of Human Rights.
Leading personalities: Dr. Konstantin Trenchev (from Stara
Zagora) and Nikolay Kolev. The founding members Dimitar and
Diana Boyadzhiev were expelled from Bulgaria on 18 March 1989.


The Art Forum (Art Forum). Founded: In late 1988.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To promote independent art.
Leading personalities: Karel Srp, Vladimir Kouril, Joska
Skalnik, and Josef Prusa.

Association of Friends of the USA (Spolecenstvi Pratel USA
or SPUSA). Founded: March 1988 after unsuccessful attempts since
May 1987 to be officially registered under the name Society of
Friends of the USA (Spolecnost pratel USA). Claimed membership:
Over 80 people, some of whom are Charter 77 signatories.
Objectives: To promote friendship with the United States.
Leading personalities: Stanislav Devaty, Petr Bartos, Pavel
Jungman, Bedrich Koutny, and Petr Cibulka. Publications: Magazin

The Brno Initiative (Brnenska Iniciativa). Founded: At the
beginning of 1989. Membership: Several dozen activists from
Brno. Objectives: To press for observance of human rights in
Czechoslovakia and for democratization. Leading personalities:
Jan Sabata, Petr Pospichal, Karel Coural, Hana Kolcnerova, Pavel
Samek, and Ondrej Pospichal.

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Charter 77 (Charta 77). Founded: January 1977 by 241
signatories. Current membership: Approximately 1,500
signatories. Objectives: To force the Czechoslovak regime to
observe the law or change it. where it does not correspond with
international agreements that Czechoslovakia has signed. Leading
personalities: The group regularly appoints three spokesmen.
The current spokesmen are Sasa Vondra, Dana Nemcova, and Tomas
Hradilek. Among the leading Charter 77 personalities are Vaclav
Havel, Jiri Hajek, Ivan Klima, Ludvik Vaculik, and Eva
Kanturkova. Publications: Informace of Charte.

The Children of Bohemia (Ceske Deti). Founded: May 1988.
Membership: The founding Manifesto was signed by 29 people.
Objectives: The founding Manifesto appeared to be a Dadaistic
prank. Since then, however, the group has participated in
several actions organized jointly by Czechoslovak dissident
movements. Leading personalities: Ivan M. Jirous, Petr Placak,
Martin Choura, Martin Grusa, and Juliana Jirousova.

The Christian Union for Human Rights (Krestanska Unie
Lidskych Prav). Founded: 1 June 1989. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To defend human rights as a Christian value. Leading
personalities: Radomir Maly, Tomas Kopriva, and Karel Coural.

The Club for Legal Assistance (Klub Pravni Podpory).
Founded: 14 February 1989. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To
provide legal assistance to unjustly prosecuted and persecuted
people and to organize seminars on legal problems. Leading
personalities: Roman Rakosnik, Lubor Kohout, and Alois Nedved.

The Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Persecuted
{Vybor na Obranu Nespravedlive Stihanych or VONS). Founded:
1978. Estimated membership: Several dozen activists, mainly
Charter 77 signatories. The group maintains, however, a
semi-independent status. Objectives: To inform both the public
and the Czechoslovak institutions about the cases of people
unjustly prosecuted (and persecuted) by the regime. Leading
personalities: Vaclav Havel, Vaclav Benda, Otka Bednarova, Petr
Uhl, and Jiri Dienstbier. Publications: Sdeleni VONSu.

The Committee To Protect the__Rights of the Hungarian
Minority (Vybor na Obranu Prav Madarske Mensiny). Founded: 1987.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To protect the rights of the
Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia. Leading personality:
Miklos Duray.

The Democratic Initiative (Demokraticka Iniciativa).
Founded: In the fall of 1987. Estimated membership: 200.
Objectives: To work as "a social and political movement and to
"contribute to our nation's democratic, free, and generally
secure future." Leading personalities: Bohumil Dolezal, Emanuel
Mandler, Miroslav Stengl, and Karel Stindl. Publications:
Zpravodaj and Glosar.

[page 6]

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For a European House (Za Evropsky Dum). Founded: 2 March
1989. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To promote Gorbachev's
idea of a "common European house." Leading Personalities:
Alexandr Ort, Jaroslav Sedivy, Jiri Stepanovsky, and Antonin

A Group for Labor Union Solidarity (Skupina za Odborarskou
Solidaritu). Founded: 1 May 1989. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To draw attention to the problems of workers.
Leading personalities: Unknown.

The Havlicek Youth (Havlickova Mladez). Founded: The
beginning of 1989. Membership: An unknown number of young people
from Havlickuv Brod. Objectives: To promote, and act in
accordance with, the spiritual legacy of Karel Havlicek Borovsky
and to develop cultural activities that would offset the
formalism of the official Union of Socialist Youth. Leading
personalities: Unknown.

Helsinki Committee (Helsinsky Vybor). Founded: 5 November
1988 in Prague. Claimed membership: 20. Objectives: To support
and publicize the Helsinki Accords and subsequent documents on
human rights. Leading personalities: Jiri Hajek (Chairman),
Vaclav Havel, Radim Palous, Vaclav Maly, and Ladislav Lis.

The Jazz Section of the Czechoslovak Union of Musicians
(Jazzova Sekce Ceskoslovenskeho Svazu Hudebniku). Founded: In
the early 1970s as part of the official musicians' union.
Problems with the regime started in 1985 when the group began
publishing unorthodox material and developing its own program of
independent activities. Estimated membership: 5,000. Objectives:
The promotion of jazz. Leading personalities: Karel Srp,
Vladimir Kouril, Josef Skalnik, Cestmir Hunat, and Tomas
Krivanek. Publications: a newsletter.

The Independent Ecological Group (Nezavisla Ekologicka
Skupina). Founded: Date unknown (the group emerged in connection
with the controversy over the construction of the 
Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam on the Czechoslovak-Hungarian border). Membership:
Approximately 130. Objectives: Protection of the environment.
Leading personalities: Lenka Mareckova, Frantisek Postupa, and
Vlastimil Subrt.

Independent Peace Association (Nezavisle Mirove Sdruzeni).
Founded: April 1988. Estimated membership: Several dozen young
people. Objectives: The demilitarization of society and the
defense of the rights of conscientious objectors. Leading
personalities: Hana Marvanova, Tomas Dvorak, and Lubos Vydra.
Publications: an information bulletin.

The Initiative for Social Defense (Iniciativa Socialni
Obrany or ISO). Founded: 8 October 1988 in Prague. Estimated
membership: Over 30 activists. Objectives: Helping Czechoslovak
citizens whose civil and human rights have been violated.

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RAD BR/100

Leading personalities: Rut Krizkova, Herman Chromy, Jan
Litomisky, Augustin Navratil, and Josef Danisz.

The John Lennon Peace Club (Mirovy Klub Johna Lennona).
Founded: 8 December 1988. Membership: Several dozen young
people. Objectives: To fight for peace "with the use of all
available humanitarian means." Leading personalities: Ota
Veverka, Stanislav Penc, and Herman Chromy.

The Masaryk Society (Masarykova Spolecnost). Founded:
Early 1988. Objectives: To promote Masaryk's legacy and
scholarly research into his work. Membership: Several dozen
scholars. Leading personalities: Professor Milan Machovec, Jana
Seifertova, Anna Masarykova, Dr. Karel Kucera, and Dr. Josef

The Movement for Civil Liberties (Hnuti za Obcanskou
Svobodu). Founded: 15 October 1988. Membership: The founding
Manifesto was signed by 116 people in Prague, Brno, and
Bratislava. Objectives: The Manifesto contained a 12-point
program, which included demands for political pluralism; a new
constitution; freedom in intellectual life; and freedom of
religion. The groups wants to work as "a loose association of
independent political groups and clubs not subordinated to any
center." Leading personalities: Among the signatories are
leaders and members of most other independent groups in

Obroda: A Club for Socialist Restructuring (Obroda--Klub Za
Socialistickou Prestavbu). Founded: 16 February 1989.
Membership: Over 100. Objectives: To organize seminars and
discussion meetings in support of true restructuring. Leading
personalities: Vladimir Kabrna, Vojtech Mencl, Cestmir Cisar,
and Zdenek Jicinsky.

Open Dialogue (Otevreny Dialog). Founded: 13 December 1988.
Membership: Unknown (founded by a nine-member committee).
Objectives: To promote cultural freedom and contacts with
their fellow artists abroad. Leading personalities: Unknown.

"Peace on Earth": The Association of Believing Catholic
Laymen ("Pokoj na Zemi": Sdruzeni Vericich Katolickych Laiku).
Founded: 15 October 1988. Membership: Unknown (the founding
declaration was signed by three spokesmen). Objectives: The
association's Declaration of Intent has 12 points, including the
demands contained in the petition for religious freedom in
Czechoslovakia, which was signed by over 500,000 people at the
beginning of 1988. Leading personalities: Augustin Navratil,
Radomir Maly, and Frantisek Zalesky.

Polish-Czechoslovak Solidarity (Polsko-Ceskoslovenska
Solidarita). Founded: In 1978 as; an informal Charter 77-KOR
group; formally organized in 1981, Estimated membership:
Several dozen. Objectives: To promote cooperation among

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RAD BR/100

independent movements in Poland and Czechoslovakia through
regular meetings and the publication of independent periodicals.
Leading personalities; Jaroslav Sabata, Anna Sabatova, Jan
Carnogursky, Petr Pospichal, Vaclav Havel, Jacek Kuron, Zbigniew
Romaszewski, and Petr Uhl. Publications: Informacni Bulletin
Polsko-Ceskoslovenske Solidarity.

The Society for Happier Present Times (Spolecnost za
Veselejsi Soucasnost). Founded: May 1989. Estimated membership:
Several dozen young people. Objectives: To draw attention, (by
organizing "happenings" and other actions) to political trials
and other politically motivated forms of oppression. Leading
personalities: Lubos Rychvalsky, Petr Payne, and Bara Stepanova.

The T. G. Masaryk Association (Sdruzeni T. G. Masaryka).
Founded: October 1988. Membership: Unknown (prospective members
are asked to write to the founding committee). Objectives: To
promote Masaryk's "social, cultural, and political" legacy.
Leading personalities: Vaclav Havel, Eva Kanturkova, Daniel
Kroupa, Martin Litomisky, Emanuel Mandler, Radim Palous, and
Jaroslav Sabata.

There have also been reports of a number of clubs, small
committees, and ad hoc groups, including The Society for the
Study of Democratic Socialism {Spolecnost pro Studium
Demokratickeho Socialismu); The Committee in Support of the
Proposal for Awarding the Nobel Peace Prize to Vaclav Havel
(Vybor na Podporu Navrhu na Udeleni Nobelovy Ceny Miru Vaclavu
Havlovi); The Association of Czech Folk Music in Stary Plzenec
(Sdruzeni Ceskeho Folku ve Starem Plzenci); ecological groups;
and committees in support of arrested dissidents


The Boy Scouts (Skaudid). Founded: Late 1988 in southern
Estonia. (The original boy scout movement was disbanded by the
Soviets in 1940.) Estimated membership: Hundreds of scout
groups. Objectives: The same as those of Boy Scouts around the
world. Leading personality: Vorv-Allon Abel.

The Estonian Historical Preservation Society (Eesti
Miunsuskaitse Selts). Founded: December 1987 (founding
congress); semiofficial status. Estimated membership: 12,000.
Objectives: The restoration of the Estonian flag (has been
accomplished) and the restoration of the war of independence
monuments. The society has become closely aligned with the
Estonian Independence Party and is currently at the forefront of
establishing Estonian "Citizens' Committees," a shadow
parliament with the goal of re-establishing a legitimate
successor to the Independent Estonian Republic. Leading
personalities: Trivimi Velliste and Mart Laar.

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Greens {ERL). Founded: 28 April 1988). Membership: About
10,000. Objectives: Environmental protection. Leading
personalities: Toomas Frey (Chairman), Juhan Aare, Peeter Liiv,
Velio Pohla, and Tiit Made.

Internationalist Movement or Intermovement (Interrinne).
Founded: 1988. Claimed membership: Approximately 16,000.
Objectives: To represent the interests of non-Estonian, mostly
Russian, workers and to support "internationalism." Leading
personalities: Evgeny Kogan, Arnold Sai, and Vladimir Jarovoi;
enjoys the support of Estonian KGB chief Karl Kortelainen.

Labor Party (Tooerakond). Founded: April 1989. Estimated
Membership: Unknown, but founded by about 20 people. Objectives:
To become a socialist party promoting Estonian interests and to
create a political alternative; to the ECP. Leading
personalities: Unknown.

National Independence Party (Eesti Rahvusliku Soltumatuse
Partei or ERSP). Founded: Unofficially in January 1988; founding
meeting held in August 1988. Claimed membership: 150.
Objectives: To demand secession from the USSR. Leading
personalities: Lagle Parek, Mati Kiirend, Juri Adams, and Eve

Popular Front (Rahvarinne). Founded: Unofficially on 13
April 1988; the founding congress held on 1 and 2 October 1988.
Claimed membership: 80,000 supporters. Objectives: To speak out
for Estonian national interests; and support Gorbachev's
perestroika as well as the ECP leadership. Leading
personalities: Marju Lauristin, Mati Hint, and Edgar Savisaar.

Young People's Independent Information Center (Noorte
Soltumatu Info Keskus). Founded: 1988. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To disseminate information about events in Estonia
that does not appear in the official press. Leading
personalities: Andrus Herkel and Mait Raun.

Wellesto. Founded: February 1988. Claimed membership: 30.
Objectives: To promote national culture and language (the
members are active in the cultural press and exert influence on
the nonparty intellectual scene. Leading personalities: Sirje
Ruutsoo, Olev Remsu, and Mati Hint.

The Word of Life (Elu Sona). Founded: August 1987.
Estimated membership: About 500 but has much wider support.
Objectives: The pursuit of Christian and national causes; the
release of political prisoners. Leading personalities: Unknown.

Many other small groups and clubs have been reported from
Estonia, including The Christian Union {Kristlik Liit), The Land
Union (Maalit), The Union of Labor Collectives (Tookollektiivide
Liit), and The Cultural Council (Kulturinougoku).

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Church from Below (Kirche von Unten). Founded: In the
Spring of 1987 in East Berlin. Estimated membership: 100, but
with many supporters. Objectives: To press the Evangelical
Church to represent the interests of the Church's grass-roots
movements more effectively vis-a-vis the state. Leading
personalities: Unknown.

Civil Rights Activists (Staatsburgerschaftsrechtler).
Founded: September 1987. Membership: Unknown (assumed to be
fairly extensive, comprising a large number of East Berlin's
would-be emigrants). Objectives: Furthering the cause of
would-be emigrants through open, public protests. Leading
personalities: Unknown.

Countervoices (Gegenstimmen). Founded: in East Berlin,
exact date unknown. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To call
attention to human rights violations by the GDR and to press for
social and political changes. Leading personalities: Unknown.
Publications: Gegenstimmen.

Environmental Library (Umweltbibliothek). Founded:
September 1986 in East Berlin and associated with the Church of
Zion. Estimated membership: About 20, but a large number of
supporters. Objectives: Greater ecological protection, political
and social change, and respect for civil rights in the GDR.
Leading personalities: Unknown. Publications: Umweltblaetter.

Green Network "Ark" (Gruenes Netzwerk "Arche"). Founded:
January 1988. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To coordinate
the activities of the many small ecological groups that operate
in the GDR under the aegis of the Evangelical Church (the Green
Network, itself, is associated with the Church); to provide
logistical support to these local groups; and to increase public
awareness of the GDR's ecological problems. Leading
personalities: Unknown. Publications: Arche Nova, Arche Info.

Initiative for Peace and Human Rights (Initiative fuer
Frieden und Menschenrechte). Founded: February 1986 in East
Berlin. Membership: Approximately 20 active members (the group
was severely affected by the state's crackdown on dissidents at
the beginning of 1988, when several key activists were forced to
emigrate). Objectives: To call attention to human rights
violations in the GDR, to lobby for political and social change,
and to act independently of the Evangelical Church. Leading
personalities: Wolfgang Templin, Werner Fischer, Baerbel Bohley,
and Ibrahim Boehme. Publication: Grenzfall.

Peace Circle of the Friedrichsfelder Evangelical Parish
{Friedenskreis der Friedrichsfelder Evangelischen Gemeinde).
Founded: In East Berlin, exact date unknown. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: The achievement of peace and advocacy of

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human rights. Leading personalities: Unknown. Publications:
Friedrichsfelder Feuermelder.

Women for Peace {Frauen fuer Frieden). Founded: 1983 as
part of the "independent peace movement," which was active in
the early 1980s. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To promote
peace. Leading personalities: Baerbel Bohley and Vera

Others. There are more than 500 small activist groups
(Basis Gruppen) in the GDR about which there is very little
concrete data. They are all associated with the Evangelical
Church. Their objectives center on calling attention to issues
involving peace, human rights, and ecology. Their membership
varies but averages from 10 to 20 people.


Alliance of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokratak Szovetsege
or FIDESZ). Founded: 30 March 1988. Membership: more than
4,000 in 53 chapters. Objectives: The promotion of human
rights, Hungary's European identity, parliamentary democracy,
and a free market economy. Leading personalities: Zsolt Nemeth,
Viktor Orban, Miklos Andrassy, Ivan Csaba, and Tamas Deutsch.

The Association of Free Democrats (Szabad Demokratak
Szovetsege), Founded: 13 November 1988 in Budapest by members
of the Network of Free Initiatives, an independent movement
launched in May 1988. Claimed membership: 2,000. Objectives: A
Western-style democracy in Hungary and Hungary's withdrawal from
the Warsaw Pact. Leading personality: Ferenz Koeszeg.

The Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Society (Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Tarsagag).
Founded: 6 June 1986. Claimed membership: 1,000. Objectives: To
build a consensus between the HSWP's reform wing and the
alternative organizations in the political spirit of Bajcsy, a
former Hungarian politician. Leading personalities: Dr. Zsolt
Zetenyi, Laszlo Morvay, and Dezso Futo

Committee for Historical Justice (Tortenelmi Iqazsagtetel
Bizottsag). Founded: 16 June 1988 (the 30th anniversary of Imre
Nagy's execution). Membership: 40 members in three sections
Objectives: The full rehabilitation of the participants in the
1956 uprising and all those victimized by the communist regime
since 1945. Leading personalities: Nagy's daughter, Erzsebet
Nagy; Judith Gyenes (the wife of Pal Maleter, the Minister of
Defense under Nagy); Ella Szilagyi (the wife of Nagy's economic
adviser, Jozsef Szilagyi); Miklos Vasarhelyi; Sandor Racz; and
Imre Mecs.

[page 12]

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Danube Movement (Duna Mozgalmak). Founded: 1984.
Membership: 120 Objectives: To protect the Danube and its
environment. Leading personalities: Ivan Baba, Tamas Dozsa,
Tibor Fenyi, and Anna Perczel.

Democratic Trade Union of Academic and Scientific Workers
{Tudomanyos Dolgozok Demokratikus Szakszervezete or TDDSZ).
Founded: 14 May 1988. Claimed membership: 4,200. Objectives: To
represent the interests of scholars and scientists. Leading
personalities: Elemer Hankiss, Zsuzsa Ferge, Peter Hanak, and
Ivan Vitanyi.

The Ferenc Munnich Society (Munnich Ferenc Tarsasag)
Founded: 11 November 1988. Estimated Membership: 12,000, most
of whom are old-guard Communists. Objectives: The defense of
socialism or communism. Leading personalities: Ferenc Berenyi
(Secretary), Miklos Magyar, and Sandor Szekely.

Hungarian Christian Democratic Party (Magyar
Keresztenydemokrata Part). Founded: March 1989. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: Improvement of Church-state relations in
Hungary. Leading personalities: Peter Kiss (Chairman) and
Ferenc Kocsis (Secretary).

Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Forum).
Founded: 30 September 1987. Claimed membership: 12,000 members
organized in 400 local chapters. Objectives: Parliamentary
reforms, a new constitution, and a new election law. Leading
personalities: Sandor Csoori, Istvan Csurka, Gyula Fekete, Lajos
Fur, Sandor Lezsak, and Zoltan Biro.

Hungarian Independence Party {Magyar Fuggetlensegi Part).
Founded: 31 March 1989. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: The
restoration of a democratic society. Leading personality: Tibor

Independent Smallholders' Party (Fuggetlen Kisgazdapart).
Founded: 28 October 1988 (first local chapter founded on 12
November 1988). Estimated membership: 4,000. Objectives: To
help the country out of its present situation, to build a
national consensus on the basis of a genuine Hungarian
historical compromise, and to promote Smallholders' views and
re-establish the Smallholders' Party. Leading personalities:
Dezso Futo, Tivadar Partay, Vincze Voros, and Pal Dragon.

Leftist Alternative Association (Baloldali Alternativa
Egyesules). Founded: September 1988. Claimed membership: 300.
Objectives: A self-managed society that rejects both Stalinism
and "bourgeois tendencies." Leading personality: Tamas Krausz.

Nagymaros Committee (Nagymaros Bizottsag). Founded: June
1988 by 19 environmentalist groups. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: The cancellation of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros
hydroelectric dam project. Leading personality: Laszlo Miklosi.

[page 13]

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Network of Free Initiatives (Szabad Kezdemenyezesek
Halozata). Founded: 2 May 1988. Membership: 1,500 Objectives:
To function as an umbrella organization for independent groups,
movements, societies, and discussion groups. Leading
personalities: Janos Kis, Peter Eszterhazy, and Gyorgy Litvan.

New March Front (Uj Marciusi Front). Founded: September
1988. Membership: 5,940. Objectives: To promote social,
political, and economic stabilization. (The group propagates
reform-communist views.) Leading personalities: Szilard Ujhelyi,
Ivan Vitanyi, Zoltan Kiraly, Mihaly Bihari, Marton Tardos, Rezso
Nyers, and Julianna P. Szucs.

Openness Club (Nyilvanossag Klub). Founded: 29 October
1988." Claimed membership: 450, mostly journalists. Objectives:
Freedom of the press. Leading personalities: Endre Babus, Gabor
Halmai, Mihaly Galik, and Guy Lazar.

The Peter Veres Society (Veres Peter Tarsasag). Founded:
In 1979. Claimed membership: 2,000. Objectives: To maintain the
legacy of Peter Veres, one of the founders of the National
Peasants' Party. Leading personalities: Dezso Keresztury, Gyula
Fekete, and Ferenc Santha.

Rakpart Club (Rakpart Klub). Founded: 1982. Claimed
membership: 1,500. Objectives: To organize debates on
political, social, and historical topics. Leading personalities:

The Republican Circle (Republikanus Kor). Founded: 23 June
1988. Claimed membership: 200. Objectives: Freedom of the
press and the right to hold bourgeois democratic views and to
pursue change together with other alternative organizations.
Leading personalities: Tamas Mikes, Sandor Bacskai, and Pal Jasz

Social Democratic Party (Szocialdemokrata Part). Founded:
29 November 1987. Claimed membership: 8,000. Objectives: The
revival of the Social-Democratic movement in Hungary. Leading
personality: Andras Revesz (President).

Szarszo Front (Szarszoi Front). Founded: 30 August 1988.
Claimed membership: 120. Objectives: Free elections and the
establishment of a multiparty system. It continues the spirit
of a movement of populist writers in 1943, which organized a
anti-Hitler conference in Szarszo aimed at encouraging Hungary
to withdraw from World War II. Leading personality: Tibor

Others. There are hundreds of other societies, circles,
clubs, independent labor unions, and discussion groups in
Hungary that focus on issues dealing with society, politics, the
economy, the environment, ethnic minorities, unemployment,
cultural heritage, and national consciousness.
[page 14]

RAD BR/100


Boy Scouts (Skauti). Founded: Resurrected in 1988; the Boy
and Girl Scouts existed when Latvia was independent. Membership:
unknown. Objectives: To promote the ideals and goals of the
international scout movement founded by Lord Baden-Powell.
Leading personalities: Unknown.

The "Democratic Union of Latvia" Political Party (Politiska
Prtija "Latvijas Demokratiska Savieniba"). Founded: Autumn 1988;
affiliated with the Democratic Union of the USSR. Claimed
membership: About 50. Objectives: To promote democratic reforms
in Latvia. Leading personalities: Ogests Treilons, Sergei
Koncha, and Leonid Sinitsin.

Environmental Protection Club (Vides Aizsardzibas Klubs).
Founded: Officially on 25 February 1987 in Riga (first congress
on February 25 and 26), although the club had existed
unofficially for more than a decade. Membership: 4,000.
Objectives: Environmental protection. Leading personality:
Arvids Ulme. Publication: Staburags.

Exodus. Founded: January 1989. Claimed membership: 30.
Objectives: To promote Catholicism and the observance of
religious rights in Latvia. Leading personality: Ceslavs

Helsinki 86. Founded: July 1986 in Liepaja. Claimed
membership: About 50. Objectives: To foster the observance of
human rights. Leading personality: Martins Bariss.

Helsinki 86--Riga Branch (Helsinki 86--Rigas Nodala).
Founded: May 1988 in Riga. Claimed membership: About a dozen.
Objectives: To foster the observance of human rights. Leading
personality: Anta Bergmane.

International Front of Latvian SSR Workers or Interfront
(Internatsionalnogo Fronta trudyashchikhsya Sovetskoi Latvii).
Founded: The founding congress was held in Riga on 7 and 8
January 1989. Claimed membership: About 300,000 (the figure is
probably inflated). Objectives: To promote the welfare of the
people of Latvia and support restructuring, with special
emphasis on protecting the interests of the Russian-speaking
population and competing with the People's Front for popular
support. Leading personality: Anatoly Belaichuk. Publications:
Edinstvo (in Russian).

Latvia's National Independence Movement (Latvijas
Nacionalas Neatkaribas Kustiba). Founded: June 1988; first
congress held on 18 and 19 February 1989 in Ogre. Claimed
membership: Over 8,000. Objectives: To promote Latvia's
independence. Leading personalities: Eduards Berklavs, Juris
Oobelis, and Einars Repse. Publication: Neatkariba.

[page 15]

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Latvia's Rebirth Party {Latvijas Atdzimsanas Partija).
Founded: 2 April 1989 in Riga. Claimed membership: about 100.
Objectives: To promote Latvia's renewal and independence.
Leading personality: Dr. Juris Vidins.

People's Front of Latvia or PFL (Latvijas Tautas Fronte).
Founded: In Riga on 8 and 9' October 1988. Claimed membership:
over 250,000 individual members and many organizations,
including some in this list. Objectives: To promote the
interests of the people of Latvia and support restructuring.
Leading personality: Dainis Ivans (Chairman). Publications:
Atmoda in Latvian and Russian, as well as other, irregularly
published bulletins.

Radical Society of the People's Front of Latvia (Latvijas
Tautas Frontes Radikala Apvieniba). (Until 11 February 1989,
when the second congress was held, this organization was known
as the Informal People's Front.) Founded: On 10 September 1988
in Riga. Claimed membership: 1,552 in November 1988.
Objectives: To act as a radical wing of the PFL. Leading
personalities: Ints Calitis, Imants Kulinskis, Janis Cakstins,
Miervaldis Lacis, and Sergei Egoryonok.

Renaissance and Renewal (Atdzimsana un Atjaunosanas).
Founded: 14 June 1987. Claimed membership: About 20
(predominantly Latvian Lutheran clergymen). Objectives: To
defend religious rights. Leading personalities: the Reverend
Juris Rubenis and the Reverend Modris Plate.

Social Activists Club. Founded: Unknown. Membership:
Unknown (mostly Russians). Objectives: To hold open
discussions. Leading personalities: Vladimir Bogdanov and
Sergei Egoryonok.

Others. According to a TASS dispatch of 19 February 1988,
there were over 2,500 informal associations in Latvia. The
number must, in fact, be considerably larger. Since the fall of
1988, new organizations have come into being at an astounding
rate: most notably, the various professional associations (such
as those for jurists, doctors, educators, and farmers) and
national cultural groups (for example, Jewish, Polish, Estonian,
Lithuanian, Russian, Gypsy, and Moldavian). Various
organizations, such as the Nurses' Association, that had existed
when Latvia was independent have been re-established; but no
adequate information is available about them.


Association of Scouts in Lithuania. (Lietuvos Skautu
Sajunga). Founded: Resurrected on 14 November 1988 (had been
active from 1919 to 1940 and was then re-established in the
West); founding congress held on 29 and 30 April 1989.
Membership: Unknown, Objectives', The revival of the scouting

[page 16]

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movement in Lithuania and, with aid of emigre scouts,
realignment with the international movement. Leading
personalities: Feliksas Sakalys (Chairman), Ricardas Malkevicius
(Vice-chairman), Rimantas Astrauskas, and with Alina
Dvoreckiene. Publications: Skautas.

The "Caritas" Catholic Women's Gathering (Kataliskas Moteru
Samburis "Caritas"). Founded: First appeal for founding was
printed in Atgiwimas of 15 October 1988; founding congress held
in Kaunas on 15 and 16 April 1989. Membership: Unknown, but
1,300 delegates attended the congress. Objectives: Following
the doctrine of the Catholic Church to create a society
concerned with Christian values. Leading personalities: Albina
Pajarskaite (Chairman) and Jadvyga Stanelyte.

Committee for the Release of Political Prisoners (Politiniu
Kaliniu Gelbejimo Komitetas). Founded: 16 August 1988. Claimed
membership: 7. Objectives: The release of all Lithuanian
political prisoners. Leading personalities: Povilas Peceliunas,
Petras Cidzikas, Gintautas Iesmantas, and the Reverend Jonas
Kastytis Matulionis.

Future Federation ("Ateitis" Federacija). Founded: Meeting
to resurrect organization held on 7 January 1989 (had been
active from 1911 to 1940 and was then re-established in the
West). Congress to be held later in 1989, but a meeting of high
school students was held on 26 February 1989 and of university
graduates on 10 April 1989. Membership: Unknown, but there are
active chapters in at least six cities. Objectives:

Re-establishment of the Future Federation with separate
associations for high school students, university students, and
graduates. Great emphasis on national consciousness,
intellectual activities, and adherence to the teachings of the
Catholic Church. Leading personalities: Vincas Rastenis (acting
Chairman), the Reverend Vaclovas Aliulis, the Reverend Sigitas
Tamkevicius, and Saulius Galadauskas.

Greens (Zalieji). Founded: After operating unofficially in
1988, the group held its first national meeting on 15 and 16
October 1988 and its congress on 30 April and 1 May 1989.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To prevent unnecessary
pollution and oppose officials who do not recognize the
importance of protecting nature. Leading personalities:
Vaidotas Antanaitis, Arunas Aniulis, Saulius Gricius, Zigmas
Vaisvila, Evaldas Vebra, and Juozas Dautartas. Publications:
Zalioji Lietuva.

Group To Take Care of Political Prisoners and Exiles.
(Politiniu Kaliniu ir Tremtiniu Globos Grupe). Founded: Fall
1988. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: Greater religious freedom
and care for political prisoners and exiles. Leading
personality: Jadvyga Bieliauskiene.

[page 17]

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International Human Rights Association, Lithuanian Chapter
(Tarptautines Zmogaus Teħsiu~ Asociacijos Lietuvos Skyrius).
Founded: 4 September 1988. Claimed membership: 5 in Lithuania, 1
abroad. Objectives'. To monitor the human rights situation in
Lithuania, inform the world about it, and fight for the freedom
of all political prisoners. Leading personalities: Valdas
Anelauskas (Chairman), Teodora Kazdaliene (Secretary), Gintaras
Bogusis, Jonas Gelazius, Algimantas Andreika, and Eugenijus
Krukovskis. Publications: Individual documents on cases of
concern, the last, no. 19, was dated 6 February 1989.

Lithuanian Christian Democratic; Party {Lietuvos Krikscioniu
Demokratu Partija). Founded: Resurrected on 16 February 1989
(had been active from 1904 to 1941 and was then re-established
in the West); a congress is planned for the summer of 1989.
Membership: Unknown.. Objectives: Restoration of the Lithuanian
Christian Democratic Party. Leading personalities: Viktoras
Petkus, the Reverend Edmundas Paulionis, Petras Grazulis, and
Vytautas Bogusis.

Lithuanian Democratic Party {Lietuvos Demokratu Partija).
Founded: Resurrected (had been active from 1902 to 1920) in
1988; a congress is planned for later this year. Membership:
Unknown, but organized a rally for democracy in Vilnius in April
1989 that was attended by more than 20,000 people. Objectives:
Creation of a free independent state in which human rights would
be respected. Leading personalities: Petras Vaitiekunas, Arturas
Skucas, and Saulius Peceliunas. Publications: Vasario 16 and

Lithuanian Freedom League {Lietuvos Laisves Lyga). Founded:
Unofficially in 1978; it began operating publicly on 3 July
1988. Claimed membership: 800 (as of 15 October 1988); it has a
council of 18 members, one of whom has moved to the United
States and is its representative abroad. Objectives: The
re-establishment of national independence in a confederation of
free European states; and changes in the Lithuanian
Constitution, such as making Lithuanian the official language of
the republic and granting economic sovereignty to Lithuania.
Leading personalities: Antanas Terleckas and Arnas Taujanskas.
Publications: Vytis and Lietuvos Laisves Lygos Informacinis
Biuletenis. Biuletenis, the name of which was changed to Laisves
Sauklys in May.

Lithuanian Helsinki Group {Lietuvos Helsinkio Grupe).
Founded: 25 November 1976. Claimed membership: As of 22
February 1989 the group had 16 members living in Lithuania and 4
in the West. Objectives: To foster human rights as guaranteed
by the Helsinki Accords. Leading personalities: Vytautas Petkus,
the Reverend Gustavas Gudanavicius, Mecislovas Jurevicius,
Vytautas Vaiciunas, Gintautas lesmantas, Vytautas Bogusis, Balys
Gajauskas, Nijole Sadunaite, Ka2:ys Saja, Tomas Venclova,
Algirdas Statkevicius, and Vytautas Skuodis. Publications:
Individual documents on cases of concern, the last, no. 70, was
dated 22 May 1989.

[page 18]

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Lithuanian National Association (Lietuvos Tautininku
Sajunga). Founded: Appeal for resurrection was issued on 16
March 1989 (had been active from 1924 to 1940 and was then
re-established in the West). Membership: Unknown. Objectives:
The restoration of the Lithuanian National Association, the
party that governed Lithuania from 1926 to 1940. Leading
personalities: Rimantas Matulis, Sigitas Rimkus, and Agne
Serksnyte (the signers of the appeal).

Lithuanian National-Democratic Movement (Lietuvos 
Tautinis-Demokratinis Judejimas). Founded: Date unknown (an umbrella
group for Lithuania's dissident movements). Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: The release of all political prisoners in the USSR;
full freedom of religion and expression in the USSR;
establishment and clear definition of citizenship in each
republic, granting the status of state language to the native
language in each republic; the creation of national military
units within the Red Army; and opposition to the expansion of
nuclear energy in the USSR. Leading personalities: Andrius
Tuckus, Antanas Terleckas, Vytautas Bogusis, and Nijole

Lithuanian Restructuring Movement or Sajudis (Lietuvos
Persitvarkymo Sajudis). Founded: 3 June 1988; founding congress
held in Vilnius on 22 and 23 October 1988. Claimed membership:
180,000 with chapters in all major cities and raions.
Objectives: Support for restructuring; achievements of
Lithuanian national rights and interests; and promotion of
environmental concerns. Leading personalities: Romualdas
Ozolas, Kazimiera Prunskiene, Vytautas Landsbergis, and Arvydas
Juozaitis. Publications: Atgimimas, Sajudzio Zinios, Kauno
Aidas, Mazoji Lietuva, Sajudzio Zodis, Alytaus Sajudis, Krivule,
Laisvas Zodis, and more than 120 others in Lithuania.
Vozrozhdenie, Kaunas Ekho, and Soglasiya (in Russian).

Lithuanian Social-Democratic Party (Lietuvos Social
Demokratu Partija). Founded: Resurrected in spring of 1989 (had
been active from 1896 until it was dissolved by the government
in 1936 and was re-established in the West). Claimed membership:
Unknown, but has chapters in Vilnius and Kaunas. Objectives:
Restoration of the Lithuanian Social-Democratic Party. Leading
personality: Alfonsas Jakubenas.

Republican "Exile" Club [Associated] with the Lithuanian
Restructuring Movement (Respublikinis Klubas "Tremtinys" prie
Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sajudzio). Founded: 30 July 1988.
Claimed Membership: about 120,000. Objectives: To collect
information about and compile lists of people deported from
Lithuania. Leading personalities: Audrius Butkevicius
(Chairman), Jaroslavas Banevicius (Secretary), Birute
Nedzinskiene, and Liudas Dambrauskas. Publications: Tremtinys.

[page 19]

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The Temperance Movement: of M. Valancius in Lithuania.
(Lietuvos M. Valanciaus Blaivystes Sajudis). Founded: 12
November 1988. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: Greater
temperance in Lithuania; proclaimed 1989 a year of temperance in
Lithuania with planned mass actions against alcohol and drugs in
the month of May. Leading personalities: Bishop Antanas
Vaicius, Jonas Gecas, and Kazys Saja.

Young Lithuania (Jaunoji Lietuva). Founded: Manifesto
calling for resurrection of the organization (had been active
from 1927 to 1940 and was then re-established in the West)
signed by more than 57 people on 10 November 1988; a formal
founding congress to be held later in 1989. Claimed membership:
Unknown. Objectives: A neutral, independent Lithuania. Leading
personalities: Arijus Bernotas, Stasys Buskevicius, and Paulius
Vaitiekunas. Publications: Santara


Alternative Society Movement (Ruch Spoleczenstwa
Alternatywnego). Founded: June 1983 in Gdansk. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To overthrow the government (an
independent anarchic group). They renounce terrorism but are
prepared to defend themselves if attacked. Leading
personalities: Anonymous. Publication: Homek.

Catholic Intelligentsia Clubs (Kluby Inteligencji
Katolickiej). Founded: After October 1956. There were more than
50 clubs in 1980 and 1981 but all were closed during martial
law; 48 have since been reactivated. Claimed membership:
16,500. Objectives: To conduct and promote intellectual
activity in line with the teachings of the Catholic Church.
Leading personalities: Andrzej Stelmachowski, Andrzej
Wielowiejski, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, and Ryszard Bender.

The Christian Democratic Club (Klub Chrzescijansko
Demokratyczny). Founded: September 1988 in Warsaw as part of
the Warsaw Society for the Promotion of Catholic Thought;
officially registered on 20 September 1988. Claimed membership:
28 founding members. Objectives: To promote Catholic thought
and eventually to form a Christian Democratic Party. Leading
personality: Janusz Zablocki.

Citizens' Committee (Komitet Obywatelski). Founded: 18
December 1988 in Warsaw. Membership: 128 prominent intellectuals
and Solidarity activists. Objectives: To demonstrate public
support for Lech Walesa and provide a pool of expertise for him
in the round-table talks and to propose and support Solidarity's
candidates in the June 1989 elections. Its work is conducted by
15 commissions covering all major areas of public interest.
Leading personalities: (Chairmen of the 15 commissions): Tadeusz
Mazowiecki, Bronislaw Geremek, Witold Trzeciakowski, Aleksander

[page 20]

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Paszynski, Andrzej Stelmachowski, Marek Edelman, Klemens
Szaniawski, Henryk Samsonowicz, Andrzej Wajda, Adam Strzembosz,
Jan Rosner, Zofia Kuratowska, Jerzy Regulski, Stefan Kozlowski,
and Adam Czartoryski.

Club in the Service of Independence (Klub Sluzby
Niepodleglosci). Founded: 27 September 1981. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To develop programs that will win Poland's
sovereignty and basic civil rights and to prepare society for
free elections and develop independent education. Leading
personalities: Wojciech Ziembinski and Seweryn Jaworski.

Committee of Independent Culture (Komitet Kultury
Niezaleznej). Founded: December 1982 in Warsaw, Cracow, Wroclaw,
Poznan, and Lodz. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To support
existing independent cultural activities, such as cultural
publications, independently organized exhibitions, and artistic
groups. Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publication: Kultura

Committees To Protect the Rights of Pensioners and the
Disabled (Komitety Obrony Praw Emerytow, Rencistow i
Niepelnosprawnych). Founded: 14 May 1985 in Katowice (another
committee now exists in Warsaw). Membership: 10. Objectives: To
articulate "the problems of the elderly, the sick, the disabled,
and the handicapped." Leading personalities: (Members) Kazimierz
Busz, Pawel Gross, Jan Matysek, Antoni Posieczek, Rajmund
Radecki, Henryk Wojtala, Wladyslaw Zakrzewski, Hanna Czyzewska,
Ewa Dolatowska, and Grzegorz Syrek.

Confederation for an Independent Poland (Konfederacja
Polski Niepodleglej or KPN). Founded: September 1979; branches
in Warsaw, Lublin, Lodz, Cracow, and Wroclaw. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To campaign for the freedom and
independence of Poland and to "overthrow the PUWP dictatorship
by peaceful means." Leading personalities: Leszek Moczulski
(Chairman), Krzysztof Krol, Zygmunt Lenyk, Adam Slomka, and
Dariusz Wojcik. Publications: Droga--Wolnosc i Niepodleglosc,
Gazeta Polska, Contra, Wolna Polska.

Convention of Veterans of the Solidarity Peasant Movement
(Konwent Seniorow Ruchu Ludowego Solidarnosc). Founded: 23
November 1986 in Warsaw. Claimed membership: 9 founding members
and an unknown number of rank-and-file members. Objectives: To
mobilize peasant farmers to defend themselves against
exploitation by the authorities and eventually create or revive
a peasant party. Leading personalities: Michal Bartoszcze, Adam
Bien, Hanna Chorazyna, Stanislaw Janisz, Jozef Marcinkowski,
Roman Michalkiewicz, Jozef Teliga, Mieczyslaw Wardzinski, and
Father Jan Zieja.

The Dziekania Club of Political Thought (Klub Mysli
Politycznej "Dziekania"). Founded: 1984 in Warsaw; officially
registered in October 1988. Membership: About 100. Objectives:

[page 21]

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"To serve as an open political forum and develop concrete
solutions to Poland's economic and political problems but has no
immediate intention to act as a political party." (It will be
allowed to organize branches in other cities and hopes to 
publish a newspaper in the future. Supports the idea of possible
cooperation with the authorities.) Leading personalities:
Stanislaw Stomma, Aleksander Hall, Slawomir Siwek, Miroslaw
Dzieiski, Przemyslaw Hniedziewicz, Marcin Krol, and Antoni

Economic Society (Towarzystwo Gospodarcze). Founded:
September 1987 in Warsaw; officially registered on 14 October
1988. Claimed membership'. 450 founding members; other
membership unknown. Objectives: To advise Polish businessmen,
for an initial fee and a share in the profits, on how to launch
private enterprises and operate in a free-market economy. (The
society hopes to recruit 20,000 members within a year and to
become an important element in the country's economic situation,
expressing the views of the business community.) Leading
personalities: Aleksander Paszynski (Chairman), Gabriel
Janowski, and Andrzej Machalski. Publication: Towarzystwo

The Education Section of the National Council of Solidarity
(Krajowa Rada Sekcji Oswiaty i Wychowania NSZZ Solidarnosc).
Founded: Unknown. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: to seek
reforms in the educational system and to remove the ideology and
propaganda from the curriculum. Leading personalities: The
education section's spokesmen are Wiktor Kulerski and Janina

The Gomoslaski Club "Solidarity and Youth" (Gornoslaski
Klub "Solidarnosc i Mlodzi"). Founded: 22 November 1987 in
Katowice. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: "To inspire and
assist young people's action groups based on the ideals of
Solidarity." Leading personalities: Tadeusz Jedynak, Teresa
Baranowska, Lech Osiak, and Jozef Zajkowski.

Federation of Fighting Youth (Federacja Mlodziezy Walczacej
or FMW). Founded: June 1984 in Warsaw, Gdansk, Cracow, and
Wroclaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To regain Poland's
independence, introduce democratization, and curb lawlessness on
the part of the authorities. Leading personalities: Unknown.
Publications: Nasze Wiadomosci, ABC Mlodych, and Lustro.

Fighting Solidarity (Solidarnosc Walczaca). Founded: June
1982 in Wroclaw; regional branches in Bialystok, Gdansk,
Jastrzebie Zdroj, Jelenia Gora, Katowice, Lodz, Lublin, Poznan,
Rzeszow, Szczecin, Torun, and Warsaw. Estimated membership: from
2,000 to 20,000. Objectives: To regain independence for Poland
and create a democratic republic. Leading personality: Kornel
Morawiecki. Publication: Solidarnosc Walczaca--Pismo Organizacji
Solidarnosci Walczacej.

[page 22]

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Foundation To Assist Large Families In the Ursus Factory
(Fundacja Pomocy Rodzinom Wielodzietnym w Ursusie). Founded:
1987 in Warsaw-Ursus. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To
provide material help for Ursus tractor factory workers with
large families. Leading personalities: Zbigniew Bujak, Zbigniew
Janas, and H. Pomorska.

Founding Committee of Victimized Fanners (Za l ozyci el ski
Komitet Skrzywdzonych Rolnikow). Founded: 30 January 1988 in
Lublin. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To create a
nationwide organization of retired farmers who are ill or have
been forced to give up their property; to bring about a change
in the law on pensions. Leading personalities: Unknown.

The Founding Group of the Movement of Home Army Combatants
(Grupa Zalozycielska Ruchu Kombatantow Armii Krajowej). Founded:
14 February 1988 in Cracow. Membership: Unknown. Objectives:
"To consolidate genuine soldiers of the [World War II] Home Army
into an independent, homogenous organization capable of taking
action on a national scale." Leading personality. Ryszard

Freedom and Peace Movement (Ruch Wolnosc i Pokoj or WiP).
Founded: 14 April 1984; a nationwide movement. Estimated
membership: Thousands of supporters around the country.
Objectives: Disarmament, protection of the environment, and
opposition to totalitarianism. Leading personalities: Jacek
Szymanderski, Jacek Czaputowicz, Piotr Niemczyk. Publications:
Dezerter, Wiadomosci i Dokumenty Ruchu Wolnosc i Pokoj, Serwis
Krakowski WiP, A Cappella, Agnus, Biuletyn WiP, Pismo Ruchu
Wolnosc i Pokoj, Stan Cywilny WiP, Wipek, and others.

"Freedom" Democratic Youth Movement (Ruch Mlodziezy
Demokratycznej "Wolnosc"). Founded: 30 May 1985 in Warsaw.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To prepare Polish youth for
life in an independent and democratic Poland of the future.
Leading personalities: Anonymous.

(Wolnosc-Sprawiedliwosc-Niepodleglosc). Founded: May 1983. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: An independent, democratic Poland (immediate aims
are to propagate ideological and historical awareness, to
provide organizational support for the social struggle
coordinated by Solidarity, and to protect the environment).
Leading personalities: Janusz Onyszkiewicz and Henryk Wujec.
Publication: WSN--Idee, Program, Dokumenty.

Independence Liberal-Democratic Party 
(Liberalno-Demokratyczna Partia "Niepodleglosc"). Founded: 11 November
1984 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: The immediate
aim is to raise public political awareness. The long term aims
are to regain Poland's independence, organize society and the
economy along the lines of modern democratic capitalism, and
establish cooperation with like-minded East European peoples.
Leading personalities: Grzegorz Krakowski, Piotr Tarnowski, and
Azja Tuhajbejowicz (pseudonym). Publications: Niepodleglosc.

[page 23]

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Independent Students' Association (Niezalezne Zrzeszenie
Studentow or NZS). Founded: September 1980 (registered in
February 1981 and banned on 5 January 1982) as a nationwide
association. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To relegalize the
association and compel the authorities to allow organizational
pluralism in academic centers. The NZS also aims at defending
and developing autonomy in academic centers, propagating 
democratic values, protecting students' social benefits, striving to
establish an academic system that will respond to contemporary
needs, and developing the independent press and culture in 
general. Leading personalities: Constantly changing. Publications:
Biuletyn Informacyjny NZS, Mecenat NZS, CIA, Informator NZS ATK,
Polibuda, Uniwerek, Goniec, Akces, and others.

Industrial Association (Towarzystwo Przemyslowe). Founded:
1987 in Cracow; officially registered in August 1987.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To foster the private sector
and promote the cause of a market-oriented economy. Leading
personalities: Miroslaw Dzielski and Tadeusz Syryjczyk.

"In Our Land" Young Catholics Movement (Ruch Mlodych
Katolikow "U siebie"). Founded: 30 May 1988 in Wroclaw.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To regain Poland's sovereignty
and independence. Leading personalities: Henryk Feliks,
Wojciech Han, Jaroslaw Obremski, and Waclaw Giermek.
Publication: U Siebie.

The Lech Badkowski Political Club (Klub Polityczny im.
Lecha Badkowskiego). Founded: 27 October 1987 in Gdansk. Claimed
membership: 16 founding members. Objectives: To fight for
pluralism in Poland; "to encourage civic activities of a
political, economic, and cultural nature; hold discussions; and
issue independent opinions on the situation in the country."
Leading personalities: Aleksander Hall, Jacek Taylor, Andrzej
Zarebski, Stefan Gmowski, Ewa Gorsfca, and Marian Terlecki.

Liberation Political Movement (Ruch Polityczny
"Wyzwolenie"). Founded: 1984 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To regain Poland's independence and create a
democratic system based on freedom of conscience and speech in
political, economic, cultural, and religious life and tolerance
of other people's views. The group rejects dealing with the
Communists. Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publications:
Wyzwolenie--Niezalezny Miesiecznik Polityczny and Dekada
Polska--Pismo Ruchu Politycznego Wyzwolenie.

National League of Workers in Opposition {Ogolnopolskie
Porozumienie Opozycji ' Robotniczej). Founded: 24 May 1985 in
Warsaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To fight for the rights
and autonomy of the working class, relegalize Solidarity, and
establish political pluralism. Leading personalities: Daniel
Dziubelski. Publications: Przelom--Pismo Komisji Wykonawczej
Porozumisnia Opozycji Robotniczej and Wolny Robotnik--
Porozumisnie Opozycji Robotniczej Regionu Gornoslaskiego.

[page 24]

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The "Oleandry" Political Club (Klub Polityczny "Oleandry").
Founded: 30 May 1988 in Lodz. Membership: Unknown. Objectives:
To regain independence for Poland. Leading personalities:

The "Our Home" Women's Association (Stowarzyszenie Kobiet
"Nasz Dom"). Founded: 25 November 1987 in Warsaw; its existence
has been confirmed by two underground publications. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To improve the situation of women in
Poland. Leading personalities: Elzbieta Misiak-Bremer and Teresa

Peasants' Civil Movement (Obywatelski Ruch Chlopski).
Founded: July 1988 in Dolny Slask. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: "To remove the [communist party's] monopoly on the
economic, social, political, and cultural fields, as this is the
only way of bringing about the required reforms and changes."
(The group describes itself as a political movement that could,
in the future, run its own candidates in elections to the Sejm.)
Leading personalities: Unknown. Publications: Glos Chlopski.

Polish-American Friendship Society (Towarzystwo Przyjazni
Polsko-Amerykanskiej). Founded: October 1987 in Warsaw?
official registration refused on 12 February 1988. Membership:
30 founding members. Objectives: "To contribute to improving
the climate in relations between Poland and the United States."
Leading personality: Zbigniew Biernacki.

Polish-Czechoslovak Solidarity (Solidarnosc
Polsko-Czechoslowacka). Founded: 1981. in Wroclaw and Prague.
Estimated membership: Several dozen activists. Objectives: To
exchange information and establish contacts between independent
groups in Poland and Czechoslovakia. Leading personalities:
Josef Pinior, Jacek Kuron, Zbigniew Romaszewski, Miroslaw
Jasinski, Anna Sabatova, Petr Uhl, Jan Carnogursky, Andrej Krob,
and Vaclav Maly. Publication: Biuletyn Informacyjny Solidarnosci

The Polish Greens Party (Polska Partia Zielonych). Founded:
September 1988 in Cracow; representatives in Cracow and Olsztyn.
Until 10 December 1988 the name of the group was Polish
Ecological Party (Polska Partia Ekologizna or PPE). Claimed
membership: 13 founding members. Objectives: Protection of the
environment within the country's existing political system.
Leading personality: Zygmunt Fura.

Polish Helsinki Committee (Komitet Helsinski w Polsce).
Founded: 1982 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To
inform the public as well as the relevant international bodies
about cases of human rights violations in Poland. Leading
personalities: Piotr Andrzejewski, Halina Bortnowska-Dabrowska,
Jerzy Ciemniewski, Janusz Grzelak, Jaroslaw Kaczynski, Marek
Nowicki, Jan Rosner, Stefan Starczewski, Janina Zakrzewska, and
Tadeusz Zielinski. Publication: "Praworzadnosc," a permanent
column in the independent publication KOS.

[page 25]

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Polish-Hungarian Solidarity (Solidarnosc Polsko-Wegierska).
Founded: 18 February 1989 in Podkowa Lesna near Warsaw.
Membership; 21 Poles and 11 Hungarians signed the founding
document. Many of the Poles also belong to Polish-Czechoslovak
Solidarity. Objectives: To organize joint campaigns to improve
the two nations' awareness of each other and to further the
cause of democracy and national sovereignty. Leading
personalities: Gyorgy Konrad, Imre Mecs, Tibor Fenyi, Ferenz
Koeszeg, Geza Buda, Wojciech Maziarski, Zbigniew Bujak, Adam
Michnik, Janusz Onyszkiewicz, Wiktor Woroszylski, Miroslaw
Jasinski, and Jacek Kuron.

Polish League for Human Rights (Polska Liga Praw
Czlowieka). Founded: 25 October" 1986 in Szczecin. Claimed
membership: 19 founding members (the league has 14 offices in
major Polish cities.) Objectives: To monitor human rights
violations in Poland and report them to international
organizations (the organization is a member of the International
League for Human Rights based in Paris). Leading personalities:
Jan Kostecki (Chairman) and Aleksander Krystosiak (Vice
Chairman). Publication: Biuletyn Informacyjny Polska Liga Praw

Polish Independence Committee (Polski Komitet
Niepodleglosci). Founded: September 1987 in Warsaw. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To regain Poland's independence and
establish cooperation with the countries of Eastern Europe in
order to combine efforts in overthrowing the communist
dictatorships. Leading personalities: Anonymous.

Polish Independence Party (Polska Partia Niepodleglosci).
Founded: 11 November 1984 "in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To regain Poland's independence; "to prepare for a
national uprising, as the only effective way of defeating
Poland's enemies." (The group refuses to deal with the
Communists.) Leading personalities: Zygmunt Golawski, Tadeusz
Jandziszak, Tadeusz Stanski, and Romuald Szeremietiew.
Publication: Polska Niepodlegla.

Polish Politics (Polityka Polska). Founded: 1983 in Gdansk.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: An independent, liberal,
democratic Polish state in which the nation is sovereign.
Leading personalities: Aleksander Hall. Publication: Polityka

Polish Scouting Organization (Polska Organizacja
Harcerska). Founded: October 1985" in Konin. Estimated 
membership: About 450 boy and girl scouts in various cities around the
country. Objectives: To instill in young people Samaritan
principles based on those of the Catholic Church and the
experiences of Solidarity. Leading personalities: Krzysztof
Dobrecki. Publication: Sluzba--Biuletyn Informacyjny.

[page 26]

RAD BR/100

Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna or
PPS)." Founded: November 1987 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: An independent, democratic, and socialist Poland.
Leading personalities: Jan Jozef Lipski (Chairman), Wladyslaw
Goldfinger-Kunicki, Andrzej Malanowski, Piotr Ikonowicz, Andrzej
Kowalski, and Marek Nowicki. A group of radical activists left
PPS in December 1988 and founded a splinter party (see following
entry). Publication: Robotnik--Pismo PPS.

Polish Socialist Party--Democratic Revolution (Polska
Partia Socjalistyczna--Rewolucja Demokratyczna or PPS--RD).
Founded: 19 December 1988 in Warsaw when several radical members
of the PPS (see above) formed a splinter organization.
Membership: unknown. Objectives: To overthrow the communist
government. The group does not exclude the use of violence.
Leading personalities: Jozef Pinior, Andrzej Kowalski, Czeslaw
Borowczyk, Piotr Ikonowicz, Grzegorz Ilka, Zuzanna Dabrowska,
and Milka Tyszkiewicz. Publications: Robotnik--Pismo PPS-RD and
Nowa Lewica.

The Provisional National Farmers' Council of Solidarity
(Tymczasowa Krajowa Rada Rolnikow Solidarnosc). Founded: 23
November 1986. The council is made up of representatives of all
three agricultural union organizations that were created after
August 1980: The Independent Self-Governing Trade Union of
Individual Farmers of Solidarity {NSZZ Rolnikow Indywidualnych
Solidarnosc, legalized on 20 April 1989); Farmers' Solidarity
(Solidarnosc Chlopska); and Rural Solidarity (Solidarnosc
Wiejska). Membership: No reliable estimates are available.
Objectives: To regain legal, independent union representation
for farmers. Leading personalities (Leadership): Jozef Slisz
(Chairman); Gabriel Janowski; Piotr Baumgart; Edward Malecki;
Janusz Rozek; Jan Kozlowski; Jozef Teliga; and Artur Balazs.

Public Association for the Abolition of the Death Penalty
(Spoleczne Stowarzyszenie na Rzecz Zniesienia Kary Smierci).
Founded: February 1988 in Warsaw. Claimed membership: 43
founding members. Objectives: To work for the abolishment of
the death penalty, to appeal to the State Council to pardon
those who have been sentenced to death, and to conduct research
into the issue of the death penalty. Leading personalities:
Wanda Chotomska, Lech Falandysz, Alicja Grzeskowiak, Wojciech
Jankowski, Stefan Kieniewicz, Marcin Krol, Wladyslaw
Kunicki-Goldfinger, Jacek Salij, Andrzej Grzegorczyk, and
Zbigniew Wierzbicki.

Public Education Society (Spoleczne Towarzystwo Oswiatowe
or STO). Founded: Autumn 1987 in Warsaw. Claimed membership: 23
founding members. Objectives: To run private elementary schools
that could offer better learning and teaching conditions and
raise the standard of Polish education in general. (They would
charge fees but provide classes less crowded than in the
state-run schools; pay teachers higher salaries; and provide
facilities such as cafeterias, swimming pools, and teaching
aids). Leading personalities: Unknown.

[page 27]

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Scouts' Union of the Republic (Zwiazek Harcerstwa
Rzeczpospolitej). Founded: 12 February 1989 in Warsaw.
Membership: Unknown; units are operating in 20 centers
throughout the country. Objectives: To instill in young people
the original Baden-Powell principles of scouting; and to serve
"God, country, and mankind." Leading personalities: Stanislaw
Broniewski, Tomasz Strzembosz, Krzysztof Stanowski, Jerzy
Bukowski, and Wojciech Wroblewski. Publication: Biuletyn
Informacyjny Ruchu Harcerskiego Rzeczypospolitej.

Society for the Revival of the Cooperative Movement
(Towarzystwo na Rzecz Odnowy Ruchu Spoldzielczego). Founded:
1988 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: "To promote
the idea and practice of cooperative groups and public
resourcefulness and self-help by setting up new cooperatives
that are self-reliant and independent of the existing central
bureaucratic structures and cooperative unions." Leading
personalities: A. Piekara, C. Niewadzi, and A. Babski.

Solidarity Christian Group (Chrzescijanski Nurt
"Solidarnosc"). Founded: September 1987 in Warsaw. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To attain sovereignty for the country; to
revitalize social life based on the principles of Christian
morality; to build economic order in Poland; to establish a
democratic system of government; and to create a federation of
sovereign states in order to secure a lasting peace. Leading
personality: Seweryn Jaworski.

The Solidarity Commission on Intervention and Lawfulness
(Komisja ds. Interwencji i Praworzadnosci NSZZ Solidarnosc).
Founded: 22 December 1986. Objectives: Seeks changes in
Poland's legal system, monitors the implementation of the law by
the administration and judiciary, and provides legal aid to
people persecuted by the authorities. Leading personality:
Zbigniew Romaszewski.

Solidarity Economic Commission {Komisja Ekonomiczno
Gospodarcza NSZZ Solidarnosc). Founded: 30 December 1986.
Objectives: To seek economic reforms that will take public
interests into consideration. Leading personality: Tadeusz

Solidarity Independent Self-Governing Trade Union (NSZZ
Solidarnosc). Founded: 31 August 1980 (the date of the Gdansk
Agreements); banned in October 1982 but reregistered by the
Polish authorities as an independent labor union on 17 April
1989 Claimed membership: About 10,000,000 during its first
period as a legal body; today, membership is claimed to be
between 700,000 and 1,000,000. Objectives: To defend workers'
rights and advocate important social and economic issues.
Leading personalities: (The National Executive Commission,
founded 25 October 1987): Lech Walesa (Chairman), Jaroslaw
Kaczynski (Secretary). Zbigniew Bujak, Jerzy Dluzniewski,
Wladyslaw Frasyniuk, Stefan Jurczak, Bogdan Lis, Andrzej

[page 28]

RAD BR/100

Milczanowski, Janusz Palubicki, Antoni Stawikowski, Antoni
Tokarczuk, Stefan Weglarz, Stefania Hejmanowska, Grazyna
Staniszewska, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Zbigniew Romaszewski, Henryk
Wujec, Jacek Merkel, Lech Kaczynski, Bogdan Borusewicz, and
Alojzy Pietrzyk.

Solidarity Social Commission (Komisja Spoleczna NSZZ
Solidarnosc). Founded'. 30 December 1986. Objectives: Social
reforms. Leading personality: Wladyslaw Frasyniuk.

Solidarity Social Fund (Fundusz Spoleczny Solidarnosci).
Set up after Solidarity received $1,000,000 from the United
States Congress. Objectives', Improving the health care of
working people.

Solidarity "Working Group" {Grupa Robocza Komisji Krajowej;
the full name is Working Group of the Solidarity National
Commission. Founded: Originally formed in September 1987 and
reactivated on 18 December 1988. Membership: 16 members of the
National Commission of Solidarity and about 20 regional
representatives. Objectives: To restore internal democracy to
the Solidarity trade union on the basis of the statutes adopted
by Solidarity's First National Congress in October 1981,
particularly by reconvening the National Commission. Leading
personalities: Andrzej Gwiazda, Anna Walentynowicz, Marian
Jurczyk, Andrzej Slowik, Jan Rulewski, Jerzy Kropiwnicki,
Grzegorz Palka, and Seweryn Jaworski.

Solidarity Youth Movement (Ruch Solidarnosci Mlodych).
Founded: March 1982 in Bialystok. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To develop political awareness and an active legal
and civic attitude among the younger generation; to break the
state's monopoly on education; and to shape independent cultural
life. Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publications: Nasz
Glos--Pismo Mlodziezy Ziem Wschodnich.

Solidarity Youth Resistance Movement (Mlodziezowy Ruch
Oporu "Solidarnosc" or MROS). Founded: October 1982 in Wroclaw.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To develop the democratic
outlook of the young and to regain Poland's independence.
Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publications: Solidarnosc

The Warsaw Homosexual Movement. Founded: Date unknown; has
been told unofficially that it will be legalized this year as an
independent association. Estimated membership: "A few hundred."
Objectives: No aims stated. Leading personality: Waldemar

Wielkopolska "Order and Freedom" Political Club
(Wielkopolski Klub Polityczny "Lad i Wolnosc"). Founded: 7
January 1988 in Poznan; officially registered 31 May 1988.
Claimed membership: 40 founding members. Objectives: "To
develop through discussions political concepts of Poland's

[page 29]

RAD BR/100

economic and foreign policies based on Christian ethics."
Leading personalities: Marek Jurek, Marcin Libicki, and Pawel

Wroclaw Liberals (Wroclawscy Liberalowie). Founded: 1985 in
Wroclaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To secure freedom
for economic and political activities within the law and ensure
that the state respects the basic rights of the individual. (The
group is interested not in who is in government but in how they
govern.) Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publication: Zeszyt

Others. There are hundreds of other independent groups,
societies, circles, clubs, political parties, charities, and
discussion groups in Poland about which there is insufficient


Free Romania (Romania Libera). Founded: Late 1987 in
Hungary as an organization of ethnic Romanian refugees. The
organization claims support in Romania. Claimed membership: 20
activists and some 300 supporters. Objectives: Democratic
reforms in Romania; cessation of food exports; freedom of
opinion; free labor unions; and observance of the rights of
national minorities. Leading personality: Mircea Bajan.
Publication: Romania Libera, a bimonthly.

The Hungarian Press of Transylvania (Erdelyi Magyar
Hirugynokseg). Founded: 1985. Membership: Unknown (a small
network of Hungarian intellectuals in Transylvanian cities and
in Bucharest). Objectives: To defend the rights of the Hungarian
ethnic minority in Romania and to advocate broader economic
concerns. Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publication:
Erdelyi Magyar Hiruojyokseg, and news releases.

Romanian Democratic Action (Actiunea Democratica Romana).
Founded: 1986 in Bucharest. Membership: Unknown but small.
Objectives: To keep pre-communist democratic traditions alive. (A
12-point program issued in 1987 included such aims as a return
to parliamentary democracy; the renewal of free enterprise; the
separation of Church and state; guarantees for the rights of
ethnic minorities; and protection of the environment.) Leading
personalities: Anonymous.

- end -

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