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TITLE:             Independent Movements in Eastern Europe
BY:                Jiri Pehe
DATE:              1988-11-17
COUNTRY:           (n/a)
ORIGINAL SUBJECT:  RAD Background Report/228

--- Begin ---



RAD Background Report/228
(Eastern Europe)
17 November 1988

(An Annotated Survey)

by Jiri Pehe [*]

Introduction: During the past few years, a
number of independent groups have sprung up in
Eastern Europe. Until now, no comprehensive list
of the new political and civic organizations has
existed. This annotated survey was written to
fill this gap. It provides the names,
membership, objectives, leadership, and publications
of all the independent groups in Eastern Europe
about which there is sufficient information.

* * *


The Independent Association for the Defense of Human Rights
{Nezavisimo Druzhestvo za Zashtita na Choveshkite Prava).
Founded: 16 January 1988 after six Bulgarian dissidents had sent
an appeal to the CSCE Conference in Vienna, protesting
Bulgaria's poor human rights record. Estimated membership:
Approximately 130. Objectives: To campaign for liberalization
of the laws on citizenship and travel and the abolition of the
laws against "antisocialist propaganda"; to oppose the forced
assimilation of the ethnic Turkish minority; to collect
information on political prisoners and other cases of abuse of
human rights; and to win registration as a legal association.
Leading personalities: Iliya Minev and Tseko Krastev Tsekov.

[*] Written in cooperation with Stephen Ashley (Bulgaria); Tom lives (Estonia);
Barbara Donovan (German Democratic Republic); Petronela Gaal (Hungary);
Dzintra Bungs (Latvia); Saulius Girnius (Lithuania); Halina Koscia and
Witold Pronobis (Poland); and Vlad Socor (Romania).

This material was prepared for the use of the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

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The Independent Committee for the Defense of Ruse (The
exact name unknown). Founded: 8 March 1988 at a mass meeting in
Sofia that followed street protests in Ruse on 10 February 1988.
Claimed membership: 200. Objectives: To protect the city of
Ruse from chlorine pollution from the Soviet-built plant at
Giurgiu (Romania). Leading personalities: Svetlin Rusev, Neshka
Robeva, Sonya Bakish Todorova, Dimitar Dimovski, and Stefan

Turkish Associations. There have been occasional
unconfirmed reports of Turkish associations opposing the BCP's
assimilation policy. Amnesty International believes that one
such group was established in northeastern Bulgaria in 1986.
Objectives: To oppose the forced assimilation of Turks. Leading
personalities: Ibrahim Ismailov Arifov, Kasim Ismailov Kasimov,
Sali Ahmedov Aliev, and Ahmed Hasanov Aptullov.

There have been reports of independent ecological groups
forming in Bulgaria, but nothing is known about their aims or
composition. Underground religious sects, such as the Church of
God, also exist.


Charter 77 (Charts 77). Founded: January 1977 by 241
signatories. Current membership: Approximately 1,500
signatories. Objectives: To force the Czechoslovak regime to
observe the law or change it where it does not correspond to
international agreements to which Czechoslovakia is a signatory.
Leading personalities: The group regularly appoints three
spokesmen. The current spokesmen are Bohumil Janat, Stanislav
Devaty, and Milos Hajek. Among the leading Charter 77
personalities are Vaclav Havel, Jiri Hajek, Ivan Klima, Ludvik
Vaculik, and Eva Kanturkova. Publications: Informace of Charte,

The Committee for the Defense of the Unjustly Prosecuted
(Vybor na Obranu Nespravedlive Stihanych or VONS). Founded:
1978. Estimated membership: Several dozen activists, mainly
Charter 77 signatories. The group maintains, however, a
semi-independent status. Objectives: To inform both the public
and the Czechoslovak institutions about the cases of people
unjustly prosecuted (and persecuted) by the regime. Leading
personalities: Vaclav Havel, Vaclav Benda, Otka Bednarova, Petr
Uhl, and Jiri Dienstbier. Publications: Sdeleni VONSu.

Polish-Czechoslovak Solidarity (Polsko-Ceskoslovenska
Solidarita). Founded: Informally in 1978 as an informal
Charter 77-KOR group; formally launched in 1981. Estimated
membership: Several dozen. Objectives: To promote cooperation
among independent movements in Poland and Czechoslovakia through
regular meetings and publication of independent periodicals.
Leading personalities: Jaroslav Sabata, Jan Carnogursky, Petr

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Pospichalm, Vaclav Havel, Jacek Kuron, Zbigniew Romaszewski,
and Petr Uhl. Publications: Informacni Bulletin
Polsko-Ceskoslovenske Solidarity.

The Democratic Initiative (Demokraticka Iniciativa).
Founded: In the fall of 1987. Estimated membership:
Approximately 200. Objectives: To work as "a social and
political movement and to "contribute to our nation's
democratic, free, and generally secure future." Leading
personalities: Bohumil Dolezal, Emanuel Mandler, Miroslav
Stengl, and Karel Stindl. Publications: Zpravodaj and Glosar.

Association of Friends of the USA {Spolecenstvi Prate1 USA
or SPUSA). Founded: March 1988 after unsuccessful attempts since
May 1987 to be officially registered under the name Society of
Friends of the USA {Spolecnost pratel USA). Claimed membership:
Over 80 people, some of whom are Charter 77 signatories.
Objectives: To promote friendship with the United States.
Leading personalities: Stanislav Devaty, Petr Bartos, Pavel
Jungman, Bedrich Koutny, and Petr Cibulka. Publications: Magazin

Independent Peace Association {Nezavisle Mirove Sdruzeni).
Founded: April 1988. Estimated membership: Several dozen young
people. Objectives: The demilitarization of society, and the
defense of the rights of conscientious objectors. Leading
personalities: Hana Marvanova, Tomas Dvorak, and Lubos Vydra.
Publications: an information bulletin.

The Independent Ecological Group {Nezavisla Ekologicka
Skupina). Founded: Date unknown (the group emerged in
connection with the controversy over the construction of the
Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam on the Czechoslovak-Hungarian border).
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: Protection of the environment.
Leading personalities: Lenka Mareckova; the names of other
leaders are unknown.

The Initiative for Social Defense (Iniciativa Socialni
Obrany or ISO) Founded: 8 October 1988 in Prague. Estimated
membership: Over 30 activists. Objectives: Helping Czechoslovak
citizens whose civil and human rights have been violated.
Leading personalities: Rut Krizkova, Herman Chromy, Jan
Litomisky, Augustin Navratil, and Josef Danisz.

The Children of Bohemia (Ceske Deti). Founded: May 1988.
Membership: The founding Manifesto was signed by 29 people.
Objectives: The founding Manifesto appeared to be a Dadaistic
prank. Since then, however, the group has participated in
several actions organized jointly by Czechoslovak dissident
movements. Leading personalities: Ivan M. Jirous, Petr Placak,
Martin Choura, Martin Grusa, and Juliana Jirousova.

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The Movement for Civil Liberties (Hnuti za Obcanskou
Svobodu). Founded: 15 October 1988. Membership: The founding
Manifesto was signed by 116 people in Prague, Brno, and
Bratislava. Objectives: The Manifesto contained a 12-point
program, which included demands for political pluralism; a new
constitution; freedom in intellectual life; and freedom of
religion. The groups wants to work as "a loose association of
independent political groups and clubs, not subordinated to any
center." Leading personalities: Among the signatories are
leaders and members of all other independent groups in

The Committee to Protect the Rights of the Hungarian
Minority {Vybor na obranu Prav Madarske Mensiny). Founded: 1987.
Membership: Unknown, Objectives: To protect the rights of the
Hungarian minority in Czechoslovakia. Leading personalities:
Miklos Duray; the names of others unknown.

The Committee for Solidarity with Ivan Polansky (Vybor
Solidarity s Ivanem Polanskym). Founded: 12 October 1988, as an
ad hoc group. (While several other ad hoc groups have been
established in the past, this one may become a permanent
association, as it is the first group in Czechoslovakia to
attempt to organize independent publishers). Membership: The
founding declaration was signed by 88 activists representing 31
underground publications. Objectives: To campaign for the
release from jail of Ivan Polansky, an independent Catholic
activist and publisher; and to set up a permanent center that
will provide information on Polansky's situation. Leading
personalities: Vaclav Havel, Petr Cibulka, Jiri Dienstbier, and
Vaclav Benda.

The T, G. Masaryk Association {Sdruzeni T. G. Masaryka).
Founded: A group of activists called the Founding Committee of
the T. G. Masaryk Association announced their intention to found
the group on 14 October 1988. Membership: Unknown (prospective
members are asked to write to the founding committee).
Objectives: To promote Masaryk's "social, cultural and
political" legacy. Leading personalities: Vaclav Havel, Eva
Kanturkova, Daniel Kroupa, Martin Litomisky, Emanuel Mandler,
Radim Palous, and Jaroslav Sabata.

The Masaryk Society {Masarykova Spolecnost), Founded: In
early 1988 a founding committee announced its intention to seek
official registration. Objectives: To promote Masaryk's legacy
and scholarly research into his work. Membership: Unknown (the
members of the founding committee). Leading personalities:
Prof. Milan Machovec, Jana Seifertova, Anna Masarykova, Dr.
Karel Kucera, and Dr. Josef Hanzal.

Helsinki Committee (Helsinsky Vybor). Founded: 5 November
1988 in Prague. Claimed membership: 20. Objectives: To support
and publicize the Helsinki Accords and subsequent documents on
human rights. Leading personalities: Jiri Hajek (chairman),
Vaclav Havel, Radim Palous, Vaclav Maly, and Ladislav Lis.

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The Jazz Section of the Czechoslovak Union of Musicians
(Jazzova Sekce Ceskoslovenskeho Svazu Hudebniku). Founded: In
the early 1970s as part of the official musicians' union.
Problems with the regime started in 1985 when the group began
publishing unorthodox material and developing its own program of
independent activities. Estimated membership; about 5,000.
Objectives: The promotion of jazz. Leading personalities: Karel
Srp, Vladimir Kouril, Josef Skalnik, Cestmir Hunat, and Tomas
Krivanek. Publications: a newsletter.

The Association of Believing Catholic Laymen (Sdruzeni
Vericich Katolickych Laiku). Founded: 15 October 1988.
Membership: Unknown (the founding declaration signed by three
spokesmen). Objectives: The Declaration of Intent has 12
points, including the demands contained in the petition for
religious freedom in Czechoslovakia, which was signed by over
500,000 people at the beginning of 1988. Leading personalities:
Augustin Navratil, Radomir Maly, and Frantisek Zalesky.


Popular Front. (Rahvarinne). Founded: Unofficially on 13
April 1988; the founding congress held on 1 and 2 October 1988.
Claimed membership: 60,000. Objectives: To speak out for
Estonian national interests and support Gorbachev's perestroika
as well as the ECP leadership. Leading personalities: Marju
Lauristin, Mati Hint, and Edgar Savisaar.

Internationalist Movement or Intermovement (Interrinne).
Founded: 1988. Claimed membership: approximately 16,000.
Objectives: To represent the interests of Russian workers in
Estonia; and to support "internationalism." Leading
personalities: Evgeny Kogan.

National Independence Party (Eesti Rahvusliku Soltumatuse
Partei or ERSP). Founded: Unofficially in January 1988; founding
meeting held in August 1988. Claimed membership: 150.
Objectives: To demand secession from the USSR. Leading
personalities: Lagle Parek, Mati Kiirend, Juri Adams, Tune
Kelam, and Eve Parnaste.

The Estonian Group for the Publication of the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (Molotov Ribentropi Pakti Avalikustamise
Eesti Grupp or MRP-AEG). Founded: 1987. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: The publication of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
Leading personalities: Tiit Madisson and Heiki Ahonen (both
exiled in 1987).

Young People's Independent Forum {Noorte Soltumatu Foorum).
Founded: Exact date unknown. Membership: The group has no real
membership; it is a loose association of young people who

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organize meetings to discuss problems of young people.
Objectives: To offer an alternative to the Communist Youth
League. Leading personalities: Unknown.

Young People's Independent Information Centex (Noorte
Soltumatu Info Keskus). Founded: Exact date unknown.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To disseminate information on
events in Estonia that does not appear in the official press.
Leading personalities: Unknown.

Greens (Rohelised). Founded: Exact date unknown (probably
in 1988). Membership: Unknown. Objectives: The advocacy of
environmental protection. Leading personalities: Juhan Aare,
Peeter Liiv, Velio Pohla, and Tiit Made.

The Estonian Historical Preservation Society (Eesti
Miunsuskaitse Selts). Founded: December 1987 (founding
congress); semi-official status. Estimated membership: 15,000.
Objectives: The restoration of the Estonian flag (has been
accomplished); and the restoration of the war of independence
monuments. Leading personalities: Trivimi Velliste.

Wellesto. Founded: February 1988. Claimed membership: 30.
Objectives: To promote national culture and language (the
members are active in the cultural press and exert heavy
influence on the nonparty intellectual scene. Leading
personalities: Sirje Ruutsoo, Olev Remsu, and Mati Hint.

Cultural Council (Kulturinoukogu). Founded: Exact date
unknown. Claimed membership: 18. Objectives: To lobby for
changes in the leadership's positions on the language,
nationality issues and economics. Leading personalities: Ignar
Fjuk and Lennart Meri.

The Word of Life (Elu Sona). Founded: Exact date not
known. Estimated membership: Several hundred, but has much
wider support. Objectives: The pursuit of Christian and
nationalist causes; release of political prisoners. Leading
personalities: Unknown.

The Boy Scouts. (Skaudid). Founded: Exact date unknown.
(The original boy-scout movement was disbanded by the Soviets in
1940.) Estimated membership: Thousands. Objectives: The same as
those of Boy-Scouts around the world. Leading personalities:


Initiative for Peace and Human Rights (Initiative fuer
Frieden und Menschenrechte). Founded: February 1986 in East
Berlin. Estimated membership: Approximately 20 active members
(the group was severely affected by the state's crackdown on

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dissidents at the beginning of 1988; many key activists were
forced to emigrate). Objectives: To call attention to human
rights violations in the GDR; to lobby for political and social
change; and to remain independent of the Evangelical Church.
Leading personalities: Wolfgang Templin, Werner Fischer, Baerbel
Bohley, and Ibrahim Boehme. Publications: Grenzfall.

Environmental Library (Umweltbibliothek). Founded:
September 1986 in East Berlin and associated with the Church of
Zion. Estimated membership: About 20, but a large number of
supporters. Objectives: Greater ecological protection; political
and social change; and respect for civil rights in the GDR.
Leading personalities: Unknown. Publications: Umweltblaetter.

Church from Below (Kirche von Unten). Founded: In the
Spring of 1987 in East Berlin. Estimated membership:
Approximately 100, but with many supporters. Objectives: To
press the Evangelical Church to represent more effectively the
interests of the Church's basis, or grass-roots movements,
vis-a-vis the state. Leading personalities: Unknown.

Countervoices {Gegenstimmen). Founded: in East Berlin,
exact date unknown. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To call
attention to human rights violations by the GDR and to press for
social and political changes. Leading personalities: Unknown.
Publications: Gegenstimmen.

Women for Peace (Frauen fuer Frieden). Founded: 1983 as
part of the "independent peace movement," which was active in
the early 1980s. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To promote
peace. Leading personalities: Baerbel Bohley and Vera

Peace Circle of the Friedrichsfelder Evangelical Parish
(Friedenskreis der Friedrichsfelder Evangelische Gemeinde).
Founded: In East Berlin, exact date unknown. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: The advocacy of peace and human rights.
Leading personalities: Unknown. Publications: Friedrichsfelder

Civil Rights Activists (Staatsburgerschaftsrechtler).
Founded: September 1987. Membership: Unknown (assumed to be
fairly large, comprising a large number of East Berlin's
would-be emigrants). Objectives: Furthering the cause of
would-be emigrants through open, public protests. Leading
personalities: Unknown.

Others. There are over two hundred small activist groups
(Basis Gruppen) in the GDR about which there is very little
concrete data. They are all associated with the Evangelical
Church. Their membership varies but averages from 10 to 20

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Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Forum).
Founded: 30 September 1987. Claimed membership: 3,000 members
organized in 8 local chapters. Objectives: Parliamentary
reforms, a new constitution, and a new election law. Leading
personalities: Sandor Csoori, Istvan Csurka, Gyula Fekete, Lajos
Fur, Sandor Lezsak, and Zoltan Biro.

Network of Free Initiatives (Szabad Kezdemenyezesek
Halozata). Founded: 2 May 1988. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To function as an umbrella organization for
independent groups, movements, societies, and discussion groups.
Leading personalities: Janos Kis, Peter Eszterhazy, and Gyorgy

Szarszo Front (Szarszoi Front). Founded: 30 August 1988.
Claimed membership: 120. Objectives: To find a way out of the
present situation through self-organization and a change in
political life. Leading personalities: Unknown.

New March Front (Uj Marciusi Front). Founded: September
1988. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To promote social,
political, and economic stabilization. Leading personalities:
Szilard Ujhelyi, Ivan Vitanyi, Zoltan Kiraly, Mihaly Bihari,
Marton Tardos, Rezso Nyers, and Julianna P. Szucs.

Committee for Historical Justice ( Tortenelmi Iqazsagtetel
Bizottsag). Founded: June 1988 (on the 30th anniversary of Imre
Nagy's execution). Membership: Unknown. Objectives: The full
rehabilitation of the participants in the 1956 uprising and all
those victimized by the communist regime since 1945. Leading
personalities: Nagy's daughter, Erzsebet Nagy, Judith Gyenes
(the wife of Pal Maleter, the Minister of Defense under Nagy),
Ella Szilagyi (the wife of Nagy's economic adviser, Jozsef
Szilagyi), Miklos Vasarhelyi, Sandor Racz, and Imre Mecs.

Openness Club (Nyilvanossag Klub). Founded: 29 October
1988. Claimed membership: Several hundred, mostly journalists.
Objectives: Freedom of the press. Leading personalities: Endre
Babus, Gabor Halmai, Mihaly Galik, and Guy Lazar.

Union of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokratak Szovetsege or
FIDESZ). Founded: 30 March 1988. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To examine the current social situation critically
and function as an alternative organization to the official
Communist Youth League. Leading personalities: Zsolt Nemeth,
Viktor Organ, Miklos Andrassy, and Ivan Csaba.

Leftist Alternative Association (Baloldali Alternativa
Egyesules). Founded: September 1988. Claimed membership: 120.
Objectives: To look for solutions to the current crisis in
Hungary. Leading personalities: Tamas Krausz.

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Democratic Trade Union of Scientific Workers (Tudomanyos
Dolgozok Demokratikus Szakszervezete or TDDSZ). Founded: 14 May
1988. Claimed membership: 380. Objectives: To represent the
interests of scientific workers. Leading personalities: Elemer
Hankiss, Zsuzsa Ferge, Peter Hanak, and Ivan Vitanyi.

Danube Movement (Duna Mozgalmak). Founded: 1984.
Membership: Unknown." Objectives: To protect the Danube and its
environment. Leading personalities: Ivan Baba, Tamas Dozsa,
Tibor Fenyi, and Anna Perczel.

The Association of Free Democrats (Szabad Demokratak
Szovetsege). Founded: 13 November 1988 in Budapest; formed by
members of the Network of Free Initiatives, an independent
movement launched in May 1988. Claimed membership: 1,000.
Objectives: To establish Western-style democracy in Hungary and
to strive for Hungary's withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact.
Leading personalities: Ferenz Koeszeg.

Peter Veres Society (Veres Peter Tarsasag). Founded: First
attempt made in 1979. Claimed membership: 600. Objectives: To
maintain the legacy of Peter Veres, one of the founders of the
National Peasants' Party. Leading personalities: Ivan Boldizsar,
Dezso Keresztury, Gyula Fekete, and Ferenc Santha.

Bela Kovacs Association of the Independent Smallholders'
Party (Fuggetlen Kisgazdapart Kovacs Bela Tarsasag). Founded: 28
October 1988 (first local chapter founded on 12 November 1988).
Estimated membership: About 80. Objectives: To help the country
out of its present situation, to build a national consensus on
the basis of a genuine Hungarian historical compromise, and to
promote Smallholders' views and re-establish the Smallholders'
Party. Leading personalities: Dezso Futo, Tivadar Partay, Vincze
Voros, and Pal Dragon.

Others. There are hundreds of other societies, circles,
clubs, and discussion groups in Hungary that focus on issues
dealing with society, politics, the economy, the environment,
ethnic minorities, unemployment, cultural heritage, and national


People's Front of Latvia (Latvijas Tautas Fronte). Founded:
The founding congress was held in Riga on 8 and 9 October 1988.
Claimed membership: more than 130,000 supporters. Objectives:
To promote the interests of the people of Latvia and support
restructuring. Leading personalities: Dainis Ivans (Chairman).

Informal People's Front (Neformala Tautas Fronte). Founded:
10 September 1988. Claimed membership: 1,552. Objectives:
Defending Latvian interests. Leading personalities: Juris
Slemelis, Ints Calitis, Imants Kulinskis, Janis Cakstins,
Mirevaldis Lacis, and Sergei Egoryonok.

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Environmental Protection Club {Vides Aizsardzibas Klubs).
Founded: 25 February 1987 in Riga. Estimated membership: In the
thousands (exact figure unknown). Objectives: Environmental
protection. Leading personalities: Arvids Ulme. Publications:

Latvia's National Independence Movement (Latvijas
Nacionalas Neatkaribas Kustiba). Founded: June 1988. Claimed
membership: 2,000. Objectives: The promotion of Latvian
independence. Leading personalities: Eduards Berklavs.

Helsinki 86. Founded: July 1986 in Liepaja. Claimed
membership: 50. Objectives: To foster the observance of human
rights. Leading personalities: Dr. Juris Vidins.

Helsinki 86-Riga Branch (Helsinki 86--Rigas Nodala).
Founded: May 1988 in Riga by a group of human rights activists
who wanted to work in their own organization. Claimed
membership: About a dozen. Objectives: To foster the observance
of human rights. Leading personalities: Juris Ziemelis.

Renaissance and Renewal (Atdzimsana un Atjaunosanas).
Founded: 14 June 1987. Claimed membership: 19 (predominantly
Latvian Lutheran Clergymen). Objectives: To defend religious
rights. Leading personalities: Pastors Juris Rubenis and Modris

Social Activists Club. Founded: in Riga, the date unknown.
Membership: Unknown (mostly Russians). Objectives: To hold open
discussions. Leading personalities: Vladimir Bogdanov and Sergei


Lithuanian Restructuring Movement (Lietuvos Persitvarkymo
Sajudis). Founded: 3 June 1988; founding congress held in
Vilnius on October 22 and 23. Claimed membership: 180,000 with
chapters in all the major cities and raions. Objectives:
Support for restructuring; advocacy of Lithuanian national
rights and interests; and promotion of environmental concerns.
Leading personalities: Romualdas Ozolas, Kazimiera Prunskiene,
Vytautas Landsbergis, and Arvydas Juozaitis. Publications:
Atgimimas, Sajudzio Zinios, Kauno Aidas, Mazoji Lietuva,
Sajudzio Zodis, Alytaus Sajudis, and others.

Lithuanian Freedom League (Lietuvos Laisves Lyga). Founded:
Unofficially in 1978; it began operating publicly on 3 July
1978. Claimed membership: 803 (as of 15 October 1988); it has a
council of 18 members, one of whom has moved to the United
States and is its representative abroad. Objectives: The
re-establishment of national independence in a confederation
with free European states; the advocacy of changes in the

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Lithuanian Constitution, such as making Lithuanian the official
language of the republic and granting economic sovereignty to
Lithuania. Leading personalities: Vytautas Bogusis and Antanas
Terleckas. Publications: Vytis.

Lithuanian Helsinki Group (Lietuvos Helsinkio Grupe).
Founded: 25 November 1976. Claimed membership: As of 16 October
1988 the group had six members living in Lithuania, one awaiting
release from forced exile in the USSR, and four in the West.
Objectives: To foster human rights as guaranteed by the Helsinki
Accords. Leading personalities: Vytautas Petkus, the Reverend
Gustavas Gudanavicius, Mecislovas Jurevicius, Vytautas
Vaiciunas, Gintautas Iesmantas, and Vytautas Bogusis, Balys
Gajauskas, Tomas Venclova, Algirdas Statkevicius, and Vytautas
Skuodis. Publications: Individual documents on cases of concern,
the last, No. 51, dated 16 October 1988.

The Catholic Committee for the Defense of the Rights of
Believers (Tikinciuju Teisiu Gynimo Kataliku Komitetas).
Founded: 13 November 1978. Membership: Unknown. After the
arrest in 1983 of its members, the Reverends Alfonsas Svarinskas
and Sigitas Tamkevicius, the group went underground. At that
time it had nine members. Objectives: To protest against abuses
of religious and human rights. Leading personalities: unknown.
Publications: Individual documents on cases of abuse. Prior to
going underground, it had issued 53 documents, the last of which
was dated 31 January 1983.

The Chronicle of the Lithuanian Catholic Church (Lietuvos
Kataliku Baznycios Kronika). Founded: 19 March 1972.
Membership: Editors. Objectives: In view of the absence of any
Catholic press in Lithuania to publish information about the
situation of the Catholic Church in the USSR. Leading
personalities: Unknown. Publications: Lietuvos Kataliku
Baznycios Kronika (This journal has the longest uninterrupted
publication of any unofficial journal in the USSR.) The latest
issue No. 75 was dated 1 November 1988).

Greens {Zalieji). Founded: After operating unofficially in
1988, the group held its first national meeting on 15 and 16
October 1988. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To prevent
unnecessary pollution and oppose all officials who do not
recognize the importance of protecting nature. Leading
personalities: Vaidotas Antanaitis Arunas Aniulis, Saulius
Gricius, and Juozas Dautartas.

Committee for the Defense of Petras Grazulis (Petro
Grazulio Gynimo Komitetas). Founded: 24 June 1988. Claimed
membership: 5. Objectives: Freedom for Petras Grazulis, a
Lithuanian sentenced to 10 months imprisonment on 2 February
1988 for refusing to serve in the Soviet army. Leading
personalities: Nijole Sadunaite, Robertas Grigas, the Reverend
Kazimieras Grazulis, Valerii Sanderov, and Aleksandr
Ogorodnikov. Publications: Documents to Soviet officials asking
for Grazulis's release.

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Committee To Rescue Political Prisoners {Politiniu Kaliniu
Gelbejimo Komitetas). Founded: 16 August 1988. Claimed
membership: 4. Objectives: The release of all Lithuanian political
prisoners. Leading personalities: Povilas Peceliunas, Petras
Cidzikas, Jadvyga Bieliauskiene, and Birute Burauskaite.

Lithuanian Human Rights Association (Lietuos Zmogays Teisiu
Asociacija). Founded: 4 September 1988. Claimed membership'. 4.
Objectives: To monitor the human rights situation in Lithuania,
inform the world about it, and fight for the freedom of all
political prisoners. Leading personalities: Valdas Anilauskas
(Chairman), and Teodora Kazdaliene (Secretary) Eugenijus
Krukovskis, and Algimantas Andreika.

Lithuanian National-Democratic Movement (Lietuvos
Tautinis-Demokratinis Judejimas). Founded: Date unknown (an umbrella
group for Lithuania's dissident movements). Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: The release of all political prisoners in the USSR;
full freedom of religion and expression in the USSR;
establishment and clear definition of citizenship in each
republic, granting the status of state language to the native
language in each republic; the creation of national military
units within the Red Army; and opposition to the expansion of
nuclear energy in the USSR. Leading personalities: Andrius
Tuckus, Antanas Terleckas, Vytautas Bogusis, and Nijole


Independent Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarity (NSZZ
Solidarnosc). Founded: 31 August 1980 (the date of the Gdansk
Agreements); banned since October 1982. Claimed membership:
About 10,000,000 when it was official; today, membership is
claimed to be between 700,000 and 1,000,000. Objectives: The
defense of workers' rights and advocacy of important social
issues. Leading personalities: (The National Executive
Commission, founded 25 October 1987): Lech Walesa, Chairman,
Zbigniew Bujak, Jerzy Dluzniewski, Wladyslaw Frasyniuk, Stefan
Jurczak, Bogdan Lis, Andrzej Milczanowski, Janusz Palubicki,
Antoni Stawikowski, Antoni Tokarczuk, Stefan Weglarz, Stefania
Hejmanowska, Grazyna Staniszewska, and Henryk Sienkiewicz.

Solidarity Social Fund {Fundusz Spoleczny Solidarnosci).
Set up after Solidarity receiving $1,000,000 from the United
States Congress. Objectives: Providing health care for working

The Solidarity Commission on Intervention and Lawfulness
(Komisja d/s Interwencji i Praworzadnosci NSZZ Solidarnosc).
Founded: 22 December 1986; organized by Zbigniew Romaszewski.
Objectives: Seeks changes in Poland's legal system, monitors the
implementation of the law by the administration and judiciary,
and provides legal aid to people persecuted by the authorities.

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Solidarity Economic Commission (Komisja Ekonomiczno
Gospodarcza NSZZ Solidarnosc). Organized by Tadeusz Jedynak.
Objectives: To seek economic reforms that will take public
interests into consideration.

Solidarity Social Commission (Komisja Spoleczna NSZZ
Solidarnosc). Organized by Wladyslaw Frasyniuk. Objectives:
Seeks social reforms.

The Education Section of the National Council of Solidarity
(Krajowa Rada Sekcji Oswiaty i Wychowania NSZZ Solidarnosc). The
council's spokesmen are Wiktor Kulerski and Janina Szymajda.
Objectives: to seek reforms in the educational system and to
remove the ideology and propaganda from the curriculum.

The Provisional National Farmers' Council of Solidarity
(Tymczasowa Krajowa Rada Rolnikow Solidarnosc). Founded: 23
November 1986. The council is made up of representatives of all
three agricultural union organizations that were created after
August 1980: Independent Self-Governing Trade Union of
Individual Farmers of Solidarity (NSZZ Rolnikow Indywidualnych
Solidarnosc)} Farmers' Solidarity (Solidarnosc Chlopska); and
Rural Solidarity (Solidarnosc Wiejska). Membership: No reliable
estimates are available. Objectives: To regain legal,
independent union representation for farmers. Leading
personalities (Leadership): Jozef Slisz, chairman; Gabriel
Janowski; Piotr Baumgart; Edward Malecki; Janusz Rozek; Jan
Kozlowski; Jozef Teliga; and Artur Balazs.

Solidarity Youth Resistance Movement (Mlodziezowy Ruch
Oporu "Solidarnosc" or MROS). Founded: October 1982 in Wroclaw.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To develop the democratic
outlook of the young and to regain Poland's independence.
Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publications: Solidarnosc

Solidarity Youth Movement (Ruch Solidarnosci Mlodych).
Founded: March 1982 in Bialystok. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To develop political awareness and an active legal
and civic attitude among the younger generation; to break the
state's monopoly in education; to shape independent cultural
life and establish self-help. Leading personalities: Anonymous.
Publications: Nasz Glos--Pismo Mlodziezy Ziem Wschodnich.

Fighting Solidarity (Solidarnosc Walczaca). Founded: June
1982 in Wroclaw; regional branches in Katowice, Lublin, Poznan,
Rzeszow, Gdansk, Warsaw, Szczecin, Jelenia Gora, Torun, and
Lodz. Membership: Estimates range from 2,000 to 20,000.
Objectives: To regain independence for Poland and create a
democratic republic. Leading personalities: Kornel Morawiecki.
Publications: Solidarnosc Walczaca--Pismo Organizacji
Solidarnosci Walczacej.

[page 14]

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Solidarity Christian Group (Chrzescijanski Nurt
"Solidarnosc"). Founded: September 1987 in Warsaw. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To attain sovereignty for the country; to
revitalize social life based on the principles of Christian
morality; to build economic order in Poland; to establish a
democratic system of government; and to create a federation of
sovereign states in order to secure a lasting peace. Leading
personalities: Seweryn Jaworski.

Confederation for an Independent Poland (Konfederacja
Polski Niepodleglej or KPN). Founded: September 1979; branches
in Warsaw, Lublin, Lodz, Cracow, and Wroclaw. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To campaign for the freedom and
independence of Poland; to "overthrow the PUWP dictatorship by
peaceful means." Leading personalities: Leszek Moczulski
(chairman), Krzysztof Krol, Zygmunt Lenyk, Adam Slomka, Dariusz
Wojcik. Publications: Droga--Wolnosc i Niepodleglosc, Gazeta
Polska, Contra, Wolna Polska.

Alternative Society Movement (Ruch Spoleczenstwa
Alternatywnego). Founded: June 1983 in Gdansk. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To overthrow the government (an
independent anarchic group). They are prepared to defend
themselves if attacked but renounce terrorism. Leading
personalities: Anonymous. Publications: Homek.

Federation of Fighting Youth {Federacja Mlodziezy Walczacej
or FMW). Founded: June 1984 in Warsaw, Gdansk, Cracow, and
Wroclaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To regain Poland's
independence, introduce democratization, and curb lawlessness on
the part of the authorities. Leading personalities: Unknown.
Publications: Nasze Wiadomosci, ABC Mlodych, and Lustro.

Freedom and Peace Movement (Ruch Wolnosc i Pokoj or WiP).
Founded: 14 April 1984; a nationwide movement. Estimated
membership: Thousands of supporters around the country.
Objectives: Disarmament; protection of the environment;
opposition to totalitarianism. Leading personalities: Jacek
Szymanderski, Jacek Czaputowicz, Piotr Niemczyk. Publications:
Dezerter, Wiadomosci i Dokumenty Ruchu Wolnosc i Pokoj, Serwis
Krakowski WiP, A Cappella, Agnus, Biuletyn WiP, Pismo Ruchu
Wolnosc i Pokoj, Stan Cywilny WiP, Wipek, and others.

"Freedom" Democratic Youth Movement {Ruch Mlodziezy
Demokratycznej "Wolnosc"). Founded: 30 May 1985 in Warsaw.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To prepare Polish youth for
life in a future independent and democratic Poland. Leading
personalities: Anonymous.

Club in the Service of Independence (Klub Sluzby
Niepodleglosci). Founded: 27 September 1981. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To work on programs that will win Poland's
sovereignty and basic civil rights. To prepare society for free
elections and develop independent education. Leading
personalities: Wojciech Ziembinski and Sewer. Jaworski.

[page 15]

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"Independence" Liberal-Democratic Party
(Liberalno-Demokratyczna Partia "Niepodleglosc"). Founded: 11 November
1984 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown, Objectives: The immediate
aim is to raise public political awareness. The long term aims
are to regain Poland's independence, to organize society and the
economy on the lines of modern democratic capitalism, and to
establish cooperation with East European countries. Leading
personalities: Grzegorz Krakowski, Piotr Tarnowski, and Azja
Tuhajbejowicz (pseudonym). Publications: Niepodleglosc.

Polish Independence Committee (Polski Komitet
Niepodleglosci). Founded: September 1987 in Warsaw. Membership:
Unknown. Objectives: To regain Poland's independence and to
establish cooperation with the countries of Eastern Europe in
order to combine efforts in overthrowing the communist
dictatorships. Leading personalities: Anonymous.

National League of Workers in Opposition (Ogolnopolskie
Porozumienie Opozycji Robotniczej). Founded: 24 May 1985 in
Warsaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To fight for the
rights and autonomy of the working class, relegalize Solidarity,
and establish political pluralism. Leading personalities:
Daniel Dziubelski. Publications: Przelom--Pismo Komisji
Wykonawczej Porozumienia Opozycji Robotniczej and Wolny
Robotnik--Porozumienie Opozycji Robotniczej Regionu

Polish Independence Party (Polska Partia Niepodleglosci).
Founded: 11 November 1984 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To regain Poland's independence; "to prepare for a
national uprising, as the only effective way of defeating
Poland's enemies." (The group rejects any dialogue with the
Communists.) Leading personalities: Zygmunt Golawski, Tadeusz
Jandziszak, Tadeusz Stanski, and Romuald Szeremietiew.
Publications: Polska Niepodlegla.

Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna or
PPS). Founded: November 1987 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: An independent, democratic and socialist Poland.
Leading personalities: Jan Jozef Lipski (chairman), Wladyslaw
Goldfinger-Kunicki, Andrzej Malanowski, Piotr Ikonowicz, Andrzej
Kowalski, and Marek Nowicki. Publications: Robotnik--Pismo PPS.

"In Our Land" Young Catholics Movement (Ruch Mlodych
Katolikow "U siebie"). Founded: 30 May 1988 in Wroclaw.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To regain the sovereignty and
independence of Poland,, Leading personalities: Henryk Feliks,
Wojciech Han, Jaroslaw Obremski, and Waclaw Giermek.

"Liberation" Political Movement (Ruch Polityczny
"Wyzwolenie"). Founded: 1984 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To regain Poland's independence and create a
democratic system based on freedom of conscience and speech in
political, economic, cultural, and religious life and tolerance

[page 16]

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of other people's views. The group rejects any dialogue with
the Communists. Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publications:
Wyzwolenie--Niezalezny Miesiecznik Polityczny and Dekada
Polska--Pismo Ruchu Politycznego Wyzwolenie.

Freedom-Justice-Independence (Wolnosc-Sprawiedliwosc-
Niepodleglosc). Founded: May 1983. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: To strive for an independent, democratic Poland
(immediate aims are to propagate ideological and historical
awareness; to provide organizational support for the social
struggle coordinated by Solidarity; and to protect the
environment. Leading personalities: Janusz Onyszkiewicz and
Henryk Wujec. Publications: WSN--Idee, Program, Dokumenty.

Wroclaw Liberals (Wroclawscy Liberalowie). Founded: 1985 in
Wroclaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To secure freedom
for economic and political activities within the law and ensure
that the state respects the basic rights of the individual. (The
group is not interested in who is in government but how they
govern.) Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publications: Zeszyt

Independent Students' Association {Niezalezne Zrzeszenie
Studentow or NZS). Founded: September 1980 (registered in
February 1981; banned on 5 January 1982); a nationwide
association. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To relegalize
the association and compel the authorities to allow
organizational pluralism in academic centers. The NZS also aims
at defending and developing autonomy in academic centers;
propagating democratic values; protecting the students' social
benefits; striving to establish an academic system that will
respond to contemporary needs; and developing the independent
press and culture in general. Leading personalities: Constantly
changing. Publications: Biuletyn Informacyjny NZS, Mecenat NZS,
CIA, Informator NZS ATK, Polibuda, Uniwerek, Goniec, Akces, and

Polish Scouting Organization (Polska Organizacja
Harcerska). Founded: October 1985 in Konin. Estimated
membership: About 450 boy and girl scouts in various cities around the
country. Objectives: To instill in young people samaritan
principles based on those of the Catholic Church and the
experiences of Solidarity. Leading personalities: Krzysztof
Dobrecki. Publications: Sluzba--Biuletyn Informacyjny.

Polish-Czechoslovak Solidarity (Solidarnosc
Polsko-Czechoslowacka). Founded: 1981 (Circle of Friends of
Polish-Czechoslovak Solidarity founded on 6 July 1987) in Wroclaw and
Prague. Estimated membership: Several dozen activists.
Objectives: To exchange information and establish contacts
between independent groups in Poland and Czechoslovakia.
Leading personalities: Josef Pinior, Jacek Kuron, Zbigniew
Romaszewski, Miroslaw Jasinski, Anna Sabatova, Petr Uhl, Jan
Carnogursky, Andrej Krob, and Vaclav Maly. Publications:
Biuletyn Informacyjny Solidarnosci Polsko-Czechoslowackiej.

[page 17]

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Polish Helsinki Committee {Komitet Helsinski w Polsce).
Founded: 1982 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To
inform the public as well as the relevant international bodies
about cases of human rights violations in Poland. Leading
personalities: Piotr Andrzejewski, Halina Bortnowska-Dabrowska,
Jerzy Ciemniewski, Janusz Grzelak, Jaroslaw Kaczynski, Marek
Nowicki, Jan Rosner, Stefan Starczewski, Janina Zakrzewska, and
Tadeusz Zielinski. Publications: "Praworzadnosc," a permanent
column in the independent publication KOS.

The Christian Democratic Club (Klub Chrzescijansko
Demokratyczny). Founded: September 1988 in Warsaw (as part of
the existing Warsaw Society for the Promotion of Catholic
Thought); officially registered on 20 September 1988. Claimed
membership: 28 founding members. Objectives: To promote
Catholic thought; eventually to form a Christian Democratic
Party. Leading personalities: Janusz Zablocki.

The Dziekania Club of Political Thought (Klub Mysli
Politycznej "Dziekania"). Founded: 1984 in Warsaw; officially
registered in October 1988. Membership: About 100. Objectives:
"to serve as an open political forum and present concrete
solutions to Poland's economic and political problems but has no
immediate intention to act as a political party." (It will be
allowed to organize branches in other cities and hopes to
publish a newspaper in the future. Supports the idea of possible
cooperation with the authorities.) Leading personalities:
Stanislaw Stomma, Aleksander Hall, Slawomir Siwek, Miroslaw
Dzielski, Przemyslaw Hniedziewicz, Marcin Krol, and Antoni

Foundation for the Assistance of Large Families in Ursus
{Fundacja Pomocy Rodzinom Wielodzietnym w Ursusie). Founded:
1987 in Warsaw-Ursus. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To
provide material help for Ursus tractor factory workers with
large families. Leading personalities: Zbigniew Bujak, Zbigniew
Janas, and H. Pomorska.

The Gornoslaski Club "Solidarity and Youth" (Gornoslaski
Klub "Solidarnosc i Mlodzi"). Founded: 22 November 1987 in
Katowice. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: "To inspire and
assist young people's action groups based on the ideals of
Solidarity." Leading personalities: Tadeusz Jedynak, Teresa
Baranowska, Lech Osiak, and Jozef Zajkowski.

The Founding Group of the Movement of Home Army Combatants
(Grupa Zalozycielska Ruchu Kombatantow Armii Krajowej). Founded:
14 February 1988 in Cracow. Membership: Unknown. Objectives:
"To consolidate genuine soldiers of the Home Army into an
independent, homogenous organization capable of taking action on
a national scale." Leading personalities: Ryszard Ciepiela.

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The Warsaw Homosexual Movement. Founded: Date unknown in
Warsaw; has been told unofficially that it will be legalized
this year as an independent association. Estimated membership:
"A few hundred." Objectives: No aims stated. Leading
personalities: Waldemar Zboralski.

The "Oleandry" Political Club (Klub Polityczny "Oleandry").
Founded: 30 May 1988 in Lodz. Membership: Unknown. Objectives:
To regain independence for Poland. Leading personalities:

Founding Committee of Victimized Farmers (Zalozycielski
Komitet Skrzywdzonych Rolnikow). Founded: 30 January 1988 in
Lublin. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To create a
nationwide organization of retired farmers who are ill or have
been forced to give up their property; to bring about a change
in the law on pensions. Leading personalities: Unknown.

The Lech Badkowski Political Club (Klub Polityczny im.
Lecha Badkowskiego). Founded: 27 October 1987 in Gdansk. Claimed
membership: 16 founding members. Objectives: To fight for
pluralism in Poland? "to encourage civic activities of a
political, economic and cultural nature; hold discussions; and
issue independent opinions on the situation in the country."
Leading personalities: Aleksander Hall, Jacek Taylor, Andrzej
Zarebski, Stefan Gmowski, Ewa Gorska, and Marian Terlecki.

Peasant's Civil Movement {Obywatelski Ruch Chlopski).
Founded: July 1988 in Dolny Slask. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: "To remove the [communist party's] monopoly on
economic, social, political and cultural fields, as this is the
only way of bringing about the required reforms and changes."
(The group describes itself as a political movement that could,
in the future, put forward its own candidates in elections to
the Sejm.) Leading personalities: Unknown. Publications: Glos

Polish Ecological Party (Polska Partia Ekologiczna or PPE).
Founded: September 1988 in Cracow. Claimed membership: 13
founding members. Objectives: The advocacy of environmental
protection within the country's existing political system.
Leading personalities: Zygmunt Fura.

Public Education Society (Spoleczne Towarzystwo Oswiatowe
or STO). Founded: Autumn 1987 in Warsaw. Claimed membership: 23
founding members. Objectives: To run private elementary schools
that could offer better learning and teaching conditions and
raise the standard of Polish education in general. (They would
charge fees but provide less crowded classes than offered in
state-run schools; pay teachers appropriate salaries; and
provide facilities such as cafeterias, swimming pools, and
teaching aids). Leading personalities: Not known.

[page 19]

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Public Association for the Abolition of the Death Penalty
(Spoleczne Stowarzyszenie na Rzecz Zniesienia Kary Smierci).
Founded: February 1988 in Warsaw. Claimed membership: 43
founding members. Objectives: To promote among the public the
idea of abolishing the death penalty; to appeal to the State
Council to pardon those who have been sentenced to death, and to
conduct research into the whole issue of the death penalty.
Leading personalities: Wanda Chotomska, Lech Falandysz, Alicja
Grzeskowiak, Wojciech Jankowski, Stefan Kieniewicz, Marcin Krol,
Wladyslaw Kunicki-Goldfinger, Jacek Salij, Andrzej Grzegorczyk,
and Zbigniew Wierzbicki.

Women's Association "Our Home" (Stowarzyszenie Kobiet "Nasz
Dom"). Founded: 1987 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown.
Objectives: Not known. Leading personalities; Unknown.

Society for the Revival of the Cooperative Movement
{Towarzystwo na Rzecz" Odnowy Ruchu Spoldzielczego). Founded:
1988 in Warsaw. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: "To promote
the idea and practice of cooperative groups and public
resourcefulness and self-help by setting up new cooperatives
that are self-reliant and independent of the existing central
bureaucratic structures and cooperative unions." Leading
personalities: A. Piekara, C. Niewadzi, and A. Babski.

Catholic Intelligentsia Clubs (Kluby Inteligencji
Katolickiej). Founded: After October 1956; in 1980 and 1981
there were more than 50 clubs. During martial law all the clubs
were closed, but 48 have since been reactivated. Claimed
membership: 16,500. Objectives: To conduct and promote
intellectual activity in line with the teachings of the Catholic
Church. Leading personalities: Andrzej Stelmachowski, Andrzej
Wielowiejski, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, and Ryszard Bender.

Industrial Association (Towarzystwo Przemyslowe). Founded:
1987 in Cracow;" officially registered in August 1987.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To foster the private sector
and promote the cause of a market-oriented economy. Leading
personalities: Miroslaw Dzielski and Tadeusz Syryjczyk.

Economic Society (Towarzystwo Gospodarcze). Founded:
September 1987 in Warsaw; officially registered on 14 October
1988. Claimed membership: 450 founding members; other
membership unknown. Objectives: To advise Polish businessmen,
for an initial fee and a share in the profits, on how to launch
private enterprises and operate in a free-market economy. (The
Society hopes to recruit 20,000 members within a year and to
become an important element in the country's economic situation,
articulating the views of the business community.) Leading
personalities: Aleksander Paszynski (chairman), Gabriel
Janowski, and Andrzej Machalski.

[page 20]

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Polish League of Human Rights {Polska Liga Praw Czlowieka).
Founded: 25 October 1986 in Szczecin. Claimed membership: 19
founding members (the League has 14 offices in major Polish
cities.) Objectives: To monitor human rights violations in
Poland and to report them to international organizations. (The
organization is a member of the International League for Human
Rights based in Paris). Leading personalities: Jan Kostecki
(chairman) and Aleksander Krystosiak (vice chairman).
Publications: Biuletyn Informacyjny Polska Liga Praw Czlowieka.

Polish-American Friendship Society (Towarzystwo Przyjazni
Polsko-Amerykanskiej). Founded: October 1987 in Warsaw;
official registration refused on 12 February 1988. Membership:
30 founding members. Objectives: "To contribute to improving
the climate in relations between Poland and the United States."
(Note: Poland has friendship societies with more than 80
countries.) Leading personalities: Zbigniew Biernacki.

Convention of Veterans of the Solidarity Peasant Movement
(Konwent Seniorow Ruchu Ludowego Solidarnosc). Founded: 23
November 1986 in Warsaw. Claimed membership: 9 (according to
the last list of names available in May 1987). Objectives: To
mobilize peasant farmers to defend themselves against
exploitation by the authorities and eventually create or revive
a peasant party. Leading personalities: Michal Bartoszcze, Adam
Bien, Hanna Chorazyna, Stanislaw Janisz, Jozef Marcinkowski,
Roman Michalkiewicz, Jozef Teliga, Mieczyslaw Wardzinski, and
Father Jan Zieja.

Committees To Protect the Rights of Pensioners and the
Disabled (Komitety Obrony Praw Emerytow, Rencistow i
Niepelnosprawnych). Founded: 14 May 1985 in Katowice (another
committee now exists in Warsaw). Membership: 10. Objectives: To
articulate "the problems of the elderly, the sick, the disabled,
and the handicapped." Leading personalities: Kazimierz Busz,
Pawel Gross, Jan Matysek, Antoni Posieczek, Rajmund Radecki,
Henryk Wojtala, Wladyslaw Zakrzewski, Hanna Czyzewska, Ewa
Dolatowska, and Grzegorz Syrek.

Committee of Independent Culture (Komitet Kultury
Niezaleznej). Founded: December 1982 in Warsaw, Cracow, Wroclaw,
Poznan, and Lodz. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To support
existing activities in independent culture such as cultural
publications, independently organized exhibitions, artistic
groups, etc. Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publications:
Kultura Niezalezna.

Wielkopolska "Order and Freedom" Political Club
(Wielkopolski Klub Polityczny "Lad i Wolnosc"). Founded: 7
January 1988 in Poznan; officially registered 31 May 1988.
Claimed membership: 40 founding members. Objectives: "To
develop through discussions political concepts of Poland's
economic and foreign policies based on Christian ethics."
Leading personalities: Marek Jurek, Marcin Libicki, and Pawel

[page 21]

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Foundation To Assist in the Supply of Water to the
Countryside (Fundacja Wspomagajaca Zaopatrzenie Wsi w Wode),
Founded: September 1982 in Warsaw; officially registered 2
December 1987. Membership: Unknown. Objectives: To use
donations from foreign Churches, governments, and individuals to
improve rural living and working conditions in Poland. Leading
personalities: Cardinal Jozef Glemp (Primate of Poland) and
members of the Polish Episcopate.

Polish Politics {Polityka Pol ska). Founded: 1983 in Gdansk.
Membership: Unknown. Objectives: Seeks an independent, liberal,
democratic Polish state in which the nation is sovereign.
Leading personalities: Aleksander Hall. Publications: Polityka

Others. There are hundreds of other independent groups,
societies, circles, clubs, political parties, charities, and
discussion groups in Poland about which there is insufficient


Romanian Democratic Action {Actiunea Democratica Romana).
Founded: 1986 in Bucharest. Membership: Unknown but small.
Objectives: To keep alive precommunist democratic traditions.
(A 12-point program issued in 1987 included such aims as the
return to parliamentary democracy; the renewal of free
enterprise; the separation of church and state; guarantees for
the rights of ethnic minorities; and protection of the
environmental.) Leading personalities: Anonymous.

Free Romania (Romania Libera). Founded: Late 1987 in
Hungary as an organization of ethnic Romanian refugees. The
organization claims support in Romania. Claimed membership: 20
activists and some 300 supporters. Objectives: Democratic
reforms in Romania; cessation of food exports; freedom of
opinion; free labor unions; and observance of the rights of
national minorities. Leading personalities: Virgil Parvu and
Mircea Bajan. Publications: Romania Libera, a bimonthly.

The Hungarian Press of Transylvania (Erdelyi Magyar
Hirugynokseg). Founded: 1985. Membership: Unknown; a small
network of Hungarian intellectuals in Transylvania cities and in
Bucharest. Objectives: To defend the rights of the Hungarian
ethnic minority in Romania and to advocate broader economic
concerns. Leading personalities: Anonymous. Publication:
Erdelyi Magyar Hiruojyokseg, and news releases.

- end -

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